Combat of Bosco, 24 October 1799
The combat of Bosco (24 October 1799) was a rare French success during the fighting in Italy in 1799, and saw the French push the Austrians back towards Alessandria from their original positions around Novi. On 23 October General Championnet, the commander of the French Army of Italy, ordered Saint-Cyr, the commander of his right wing around Genoa, to gather the 12,000 disposable troops from his three divisions and advance north-west towards Acqui. In order to do this Saint-Cyr had first to deal with the 6,000 Austrian troops of General Karackzay, which were guarding the valleys of the Orba and Scrivia river, and which were holding some of the ground that had been fought over during the battle of Novi (15 August 1799).
On 24 October the French advanced in three columns, towards Capriata (on the Orba), Pasturana (west of Novi) and Pozzolo (north of Novi). The first fighting saw Laboissière's division repulsed from Pasturana. To his right Dombrowsky attacked the Austrians in their entrenchments at Novi, and with the help of his Polish troops was able to push the Austrians back. At about the same time Watrin attacked via Pozzolo, turning the left of the Austrian line.
Karackzay was forced now back all along his line, and was forced to retreat in some disorder across the Bormida River, taking shelter under the guns of Alessandria. The French claimed to have taken 1,000 prisoners in the fighting. Saint-Cyr now occupied Karackzay's old headquarters at Bosco, to the north of the battlefield. This was the most important fighting in Italy since the battle of Novi, and the first to see the front line move. The left flank of the entire Austrian line was threatened, and Melas was forced to move Kray and reinforcements to Alessandria.
The French success was short-lived. On 4 November Championnet suffered a major defeat at Genola, and over the next few days Kray forced the French back to Novi. An attack on their defensive position there failed (combat of Novi, 6 November 1799), but most of the French gains made after the combat of Bosco had been lost.
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Timeline of United States military operations
This timeline of United States government military operations, based in part on reports by the Congressional Research Service, shows the years and places in which U.S. military units participated in armed conflicts or occupation of foreign territories. Items in bold are wars most often considered to be major conflicts by historians and the general public.
Note that instances where the U.S. government gave aid alone, with no military personnel involvement, are excluded, as are Central Intelligence Agency operations. In domestic peacetime disputes such as riots and labor issues, only operations undertaken by active duty personnel (aka "federal troops" or "U.S. military") are depicted in this article state defense forces and the National Guard are not included, as they're not fully integrated into the U.S. armed forces even if they are federalized for duty within the U.S.
Doc Holliday kills for the first time
Doc Holliday commits his first murder, killing a man for shooting up his New Mexico saloon.
Despite his formidable reputation as a deadly gunslinger, Doc Holliday only engaged in eight shootouts during his life, and it has only been verified that he killed two men. Still, the smartly dressed ex-dentist from Atlanta had a remarkably fearless attitude toward death and danger, perhaps because he was slowly dying from tuberculosis.
In 1879, Holliday settled in Las Vegas, New Mexico, where he opened a saloon with a partner. Holliday spent his evenings gambling in the saloon and he seemed determined to stress his health condition by heavy drinking. A notorious cad, Holliday also enjoyed the company of the dance hall girls that the partners hired to entertain the customers–which sometimes sparked trouble.
On July 19, 1879, a former army scout named Mike Gordon tried to persuade one of Holliday’s saloon girls to quit her job and run away with him. When she refused, Gordon became infuriated. He went out to the street and began to fire bullets randomly into the saloon. He didn’t have a chance to do much damageter the second shot, Holliday calmly stepped out of the saloon and dropped Gordon with a single bullet. Gordon died the next day.
The Egyptian Campaign
17-18 April: Preliminaries to the Peace of Leoben.
4 September: The Royalist coup d’état of 18 Fructidor.
18 October: Treaty of Campoformio with Austria.
26 October: Bonaparte nominated commander of the ‘armée d’Angleterre’.
5 March: Bonaparte nominated commander in chief of the ‘armée d’Orient. Creation of the ‘Commission d’armement des côtes la Méditerranée’, the body charged with organising the logistics of the expedition.
13 April: The beginning of the preparations for the expedition.
2 May: Jervis decides to keep Marseilles and Toulon under surveillance.
3 May: Bonaparte leaves Paris.
9 May: Bonaparte arrives in Toulon.
17 May: Nelson captures a corsair who informs him of the imminent departure of the French from Toulon.
19 May: Departure of the French squadron from Toulon.
20-21 May: Admiral Nelson‘s ship is dismasted during the night.
21 May: Departure of the convoy from Genoa.
26 May: Departure of the convoy from Civita Vecchia.
27 May: Arrival of the squadron from Corsica.
31 May: Nelson once more off Toulon.
9 June: Arrival at Malta (the convoy from Civita Vecchia had already arrived).
18 June: Departure from Malta.
21 June: Both the British and French squadrons are to the East of Sicily.
2 July: Taking of Alexandria.
6 July: Departures of the French vans for Cairo. Creation of a Nile flotilla.
8 July: Arrival of the French at Damanhour.
10 July: Arrival of the French at Ramanieh (two days rest then back to battle stations).
19 July: Discovery of the Rosetta stone.
22 July: The Pasha of Cairo flees with Ibrahim Bey.
24 July: The arrival of the French in Cairo.
11 August: Salahieh: Bonaparte halts the pursuit of Ibrahim Bey.
13 August: The news of the disaster at Aboukir reaches Cairo.
15 August: Bonaparte returns to Cairo. Creation of the ‘Légion nautique’.
25 August: Desaix pursues Mourad Bey into Upper Egypt.
29 August: First copy of the army journal, Le Courrier de l’Egypte.
31 August: Arrival of Desaix at Beni-Suef.
2 September: Organisation of the system of local guides.
9 September: Beginning of hostilities with Turkey.
10 September: Desaix at Melawi.
12 September: Desaix at Derut-el-Sherif, at the entrance to the Joseph Canal.
22 September: First volume of the journal of the Institut d’égypte, La décade égyptienne.
24 September: Desaix enters the canal in the hunt for Mourad.
27 September: Creation of the ‘Légion grecque’.
3 October: Desaix’s van catches sight of some Mamluk detachments.
7 October: Sediman’s battle with Mourad Bey.
21-22 October: The Revolt of Cairo.
22 November: Desaix at Beni-Suef is joined by Belliard.
16 December: Desaix at work in Upper Egypt. Davout with a thousand cavalrymen reinforces Desaix’s division.
2 January: Davout marches on Sawaqui.
9 January: Creation of the dromedary regiment.
22 January: Combat at Samhud (Desaix).
28 January: Desaix reaches Edde-Gireh.
1 February: Arrival at Syene (Aswan).
6 February: Beginning of the Syrian campaign.
9 February: Desaix at Esneh.
22 February: Kleber at the Zawi wells.
End of February: Arrival of the Sherif of Mecca with 3000 men at Keneh.
3-10 March: Combat at Benut. (Upper Egypt).
7 March: Assault on the port of Jaffa.
11 March: An epidemic of the plague breaks out in Jaffa.
13 March: Declaration of war between France and Austria.
19 March: Beginning of the siege of St Jean d’Acre. Taking by the English of the French fleet leaving Damietta.
30 March-7 April: Bonaparte goes to Mount Thabor.
16 April: Combat of Mont-Thabor (Kléber). Combat of Beni-Adin (Desaix). Dugua forbids Desaix from approaching Cairo.
17-18 April: Arrival of material in the bay of Jaffa.
10 May: Kléber’s attack aborted beneath the walls of Acre.
20 May: Return to Cairo via Haifa, Tantourah, Kaisarieh…
24 May: Arrival in Jaffa and destruction of the fortifications.
14 June: Bonaparte’s solemn entry into Cairo.
21 June: Bonaparte gives the order to arm two frigates in Alexandria harbour, La Carrère and La Muiron.
12 July: Arrival of the Anglo-Turkish fleet, commanded by Sydney Smith, off Alexandria. Order given to Desaix to evacuate upper Egypt.
25 July: Land battle of Aboukir.
End of July: Setback for France in Italy.
22 August: Bonaparte embarks for France. Kléber succeeds hims as Commander-in- Chief.
1-5 October: Combats at Samhoud (Morand).
9 October: Belliard victorious at Sediman. Bonaparte arrives in Fréjus.
11 November: Prevention of an attempted landing by Ottomans at Damietta. The Coup d’État of 18 Brumaire. Bonaparte provisory Consul with Siéyès and Roger Ducros.
28 January: Signature of the Convention of el-Arych (Kléber and Sidney Smith).
End of January: London refuses to ratify the convention.
19 February: Bonaparte moves into the Tuileries Palace.
20 March: Kléber’s victory at Heliopolis.
27 April: Retaking of Cairo by Kléber.
14 June: Assassination of Kléber and the succession of Menou. First Consul’s victory at Marengo
3 December: Moreau’s victory at Hohenlinden.
9 February: Peace of Lunéville with Austria.
21 March: Defeat of Menou at Canopus.
20 April: Death of Mourad Bey.
25 June: Belliard, under siege in Cairo, surrenders.
2 September: Menou surrenders in Alexandria.
20 September: Embarkation for Paris of French expeditionary force.
25 June: re-establishment of the peace with Turkey.
Father Bosco and the Monsters
Last week—amidst the filial correction of Pope Francis for the spreading of heresies—I paused to read about St. John Bosco and the monsters.
Father Bosco’s dreams were haunted by them—monsters swooping at boys too “numb” to defend themselves monsters turning their backs to the Blessed Sacrament before trampling souls monsters clawing at flowers symbolizing purity while boys stood by “totally unconcerned.”
The frightful dreams were warnings to save souls. In one dream, a mysterious old man with a blue flaming torch prophesied one boy’s sudden death. In another, an angel confronted boys guilty of sacrilege: “Don’t you realize that there is death in your soul?” In another, Father Bosco felt a touch of Hell, where falling souls became “incandescent and perfectly motionless.”
So good Father Bosco resolved: “I don’t mind slaving if I can rescue these beloved sons of mine.” He taught them to love the Holy Mass and purity and the Mother of God and prepared them for happy deaths. He once firmly warned: “You can be sure I will do my utmost to save you. Many of you whom I urged to go to confession did not accept my invitation. For heaven’s sake, save your souls.”
In one dream, Father Bosco confronted monsters holding nooses. “What are you doing here? I do not fear your rage… Go away,” he shouted. After the dream, he taught the boys to elude the nooses with good confessions: “Let us confess all our sins and be truly sorry for them.”
Where are the monsters in Amoris Laetitia? Where is Father Bosco’s strong voice, naming the beasts stalking our souls, inspiring us to form good confessions, to be always ready for death? Cardinal Schönborn—handpicked by the pope to explain Amoris Laetitia—defines it as a feel-good “linguistic event.” The Church’s “tone” has become “richer in esteem, as if the different situations in life had simply been accepted, without being immediately judged or condemned.”
Cardinal Schönborn laments the creation of “automatons” that are “remote-controlled.” Parents who are “obsessed with always knowing where their children are and controlling all their movements … seek only to dominate space” (AL 261). In Cardinal Schönborn’s diocese, where space is not dominated and remote controls are banned, those in adultery could already discern a return to the Eucharist via a five-point guide on the following:
What is the situation regarding your children?
What is the situation regarding your separated wife or husband?
Have you overcome guilt and feelings of guilt?
How can you deepen your relationship and make it even happier?
What does my conscience tell me? What is God asking of me?
Amoris Laetitia 300’s “examination of conscience” adapts that deep five-step guide. In Bishop McElroy’s guidelines—where priests do not “hid[e] behind the Church’s teachings” (AL 305) in confessionals that are “torture chamber[s]” (AL 351)—they hold “conversations” about the adulterer’s complicated “existential life.” What are the “obligations” of the “new marriage”? Would receiving the Eucharist too soon “hurt others”? Priests must not “make decisions for the believer.” They are counselors who validate us.
Where are the monsters in Amoris Laetitia? The filial correction lists numerous sections where “heretical positions are insinuated or encouraged”—and “words, deeds, and omissions” of Pope Francis that have “in effect upheld and propagated” the heresies, “to the great and imminent danger of souls.” The signatories do not declare him guilty of the personal sin or canonical crime of heresy but “respectfully insist” that he condemn seven heretical propositions.
There’s the heresy that “a Christian believer can have full knowledge of a divine law and voluntarily choose to break it in a serious matter, but not be in a state of mortal sin.”
There’s the heresy that “a person is able, while he obeys a divine prohibition, to sin against God by that very act of obedience.” That allegation that purity can sometimes constitute “further sin” (AL 301)—as Fr. Brian Harrison says elsewhere—both ruins all morality and “verge[s] on blasphemy by seeming to impugn the veracity of God himself.”
Then there’s Amoris Laetitia 303’s explosive claim that adultery can sometimes be “what God himself is asking.” As Claudio Pierantoni explains, it’s not about putative “diminished subjective responsibility” but about “calling objectively good (because God could certainly not ask something that is not objectively good) something that is objectively bad.” It’s about accusing God of contradicting the moral law—“attacking the very notion of God himself.”
By “pure logic,” warns Josef Seifert, a God who can “ask” adultery of us can “ask” for abortion and euthanasia and other intrinsic evils. Amoris Laetitia conceals a “theological atomic bomb” set to explode our “whole moral edifice.”
Seifert was swiftly fired by an archbishop for daring to speak of that bomb.
And behind that explosive lurks the monster of Modernism, condemned by Pope St. Pius X as the “synthesis of all heresies” for attacking faith itself. In Pascendi, the saintly pope said it would be a “crime” to remain silent about Modernism’s “unrelenting war” against the magisterium, its plot to assault all of Catholic truth, ending in atheism. He said his papal office of “feeding the Lord’s flock” required him to protect the faith from “profane novelties.”
Pierantoni, a signatory of the filial correction, calls today’s crisis “apocalyptic” precisely because “you don’t get the impression that the pope is making only one mistake.” Amoris Laetitia’s underlying premises expose a larger “Modernist view … that doctrine is basically changeable”:
[Modernism’s] basic presupposition is that there is not a really immutable God (an error condemned by the First Vatican Council), and therefore an immutable substance of truth, but somehow God identifies himself with creation (another error condemned by Vatican I and so evolves with history…
According to this view, today’s magisterium doesn’t need to be logically coherent with previous magisterium: it is enough to state that the same universal “Substance”—God, Reality, or Life—is speaking today… That is the philosophical foundation of maxims such as ‘Reality is superior to ideas’ (cf. Evangelii Gaudium 233).
And when “‘life realities’ are the true source of revelation”—as Cardinal Müller once said—man himself becomes “subject and object of the revelation at the same time.” Revelation in Christ becomes a mere “preparatory stage” for the final “self-divinization of man.”
The increasing self-divinization of man—is that why Cardinal Schönborn cites Evangelii Gaudium’s striking claim that, like Moses before God, “we must take off our shoes before the sacred ground of others” during “accompaniment” (169)?
The increasing self-divinization of man—so that, bombing God’s law, sinning against our Divine Lord with impunity, we can numbly surrender to the monsters.
We children are—so many of us—praying for our spiritual fathers to save us. We are grateful for every Father Bosco who raises his voice despite “the beginning of the official persecution of orthodoxy within the Church.” “Courage,” the saint once said to his fellow shepherds. “Let us do all we can for God’s glory and the welfare of souls.”
The first color photographs were daguerreotypes and tintypes that had color added by hand. This technique was replaced in 1907 by the autochrome process first done by brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière. However, these photos needed to be projected or viewed with a black light.
In 1935 the Kodak company introduced Kodachrome, and color film was born. With the invention of color film arrived the ability to see the world like never before. Photographer Eliot Porter used color film to capture stunning images of birds, and in 1943 his were the first color photographs exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.
Both film and cameras continued to evolve and improve until the invention of digital photography, which shifted the focus of photographic technology to its core.
6. Later in life, he left the U.S.
In 1799, Boone, then in his mid-60s, moved with his extended family from Kentucky, which achieved statehood in 1792, to present-day Missouri, then under Spanish control and known as Upper Louisiana. The Spanish, who wanted to encourage settlement in the area, welcomed Boone with military honors and granted him 850 acres of land in the Femme Osage district, west of St. Louis. They also waived the requirement that all immigrants had to be Roman Catholic and made Boone a syndic, or magistrate, of the Femme Osage district, responsible for settling disputes among settlers.
In 1800, the Spanish ceded the Louisiana Territory to France, and three years later the U.S. gained control of it with the Louisiana Purchase. Boone subsequently lost his land claims because he hadn’t followed the proper procedures to gain permanent title to the land. After the frontiersman petitioned Congress, President James Madison signed a bill into law in 1814 giving Boone his 850 acres however, he soon had to sell the property to pay off Kentuckians who𠆝 heard the news about the grant and traveled to Missouri to collect on old debts. Missouri became America’s 24th state in 1821, a year after Boone’s death.
Jason Negro, originally from Bellflower, CA, is a St. John Bosco High School graduate from the class of 1991. While at Bosco, he lettered in both varsity football and baseball. Jason later graduated from California State University Dominguez Hills with a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics. While completing his degree, he began his coaching career in Bellflower where he coached Junior All-American for five years.
After college, Coach Negro began his career at St. John Bosco in 1998 where he taught geometry and Algebra II and coached both varsity football and baseball. At Bosco he coached defensive backs and linebackers and held the position of defensive coordinator for one season. After three years at SJB, he found a new home with the Mustangs at Trabuco Hills High School. At Trabuco Hills he coached the varsity defensive backs his first year then the inside linebackers his second. In May of 2003, at age 29, he was named the head coach of the Mustangs only the third head coach since Trabuco&rsquos opening in 1987.
Coach Negro held the position of head coach at Trabuco Hills for seven years. During his time at Trabuco, the Mustangs made five straight playoff appearances, winning two Sea View League Championships. He also led the Mustangs to two CIF Semi-Finals appearances in 2006 and 2008 as well as two CIF Finals appearances in 2007 and 2009. Under his last 5 years of leadership the Mustangs boasted an impressive 40 &ndash 10 record and a 10 &ndash 4 playoff record. In the summer of 2008 Coach Negro was selected the head coach of the South All-Stars for the Orange County North/South All-Star game.
Coach Negro took the reigns of Bosco Football as Head Coach in 2010. After his third season at St. John Bosco, Coach Negro, along with his incredibly talented staff, captured an undefeated Trinity League Championship and made a Pac 5 division semi-final appearance. The completion of his fourth season saw Coach Negro lead his team through a historic season. The 2013 Braves went 16-0, earning themselves a back-to-back Trinity League Title, CIF PAC-5 Division Championship Title, the Open Division California State Championship Title with a 20-14 victory over perennial power De La Salle High School, and a #1 National Ranking Title by Max Preps and USA Today. At the conclusion of the 2013 season, Coach Negro was an assistant coach to the US Army All-American Bowl Game in San Antonio, TX.
Coach Negro earned the prestigious honor of being named the 2013 National High School Coach of the Year by Max Preps as well as the American Football Monthly Magazine Coach of the Year, presented by Rawlings Football. In addition, he received the 2013 Xenith/Bill Yoast National Coach of the Year award presented by the US Army All-American Bowl. Locally, he was named the Long Beach Press-Telegram&rsquos Dream Team Coach of the Year and received top honors as the CIF Southern Section Pac-5 Coach of the year.
In what is arguably one of the toughest leagues in the nation, the Braves have earned their fourth consecutive undefeated Trinity League title. In 2014 and 2015, the Braves were the PAC5 Division runner-ups.
2016 was another successful season for the Braves. A CIF Southern Section Championship over local power Mater Dei preceded another State Title in which the Braves defeated De La Salle 56-33. Coach Negro was named Long Beach Press-Telegram, CIF Southern Section Division 1, California Coaches Association CIF Southern Section Coach of the Year, and the USA Today California Coach of the Year.
In 2017, The Braves took two east coast trips (Florida and Washington, D.C.), and finished the season with an 11-3 campaign and a record setting 5 th straight trip to the CIF-SS Division 1 Finals.
2018 was an exciting year as the doors to Panish Family Stadium were opened after being on the road for three seasons. Record setting continued as the Braves made their 6 th straight appearance to the CIF-SS Division 1 Finals, falling just short of the title.
The 2019 season brought great success to Brave Nation. Behind the leadership of the #1 prep quarterback in the nation, the Braves took on a daunting pre-season challenge and beat national powers DeMatha Catholic High School, Our Lady of Good Counsel High School and Don Bosco Preparatory High School and entered the Trinity League with a solid 5-0 record. The Braves made their record setting 7 th straight appearance to the CIF-SS Open Division Finals, defeating rival Mater Dei in dramatic fashion, coming back from a 28-5 deficit, to earn the CIF Championship. Following the defeat of De La Salle to earn the California State Championship title, the Bosco Braves were named undisputed National Champions. Coach Negro was named Press-Telegram Dream Team Coach of the Year, CIF-SS Open Division Coach of the Year, and earned the Cal Hi Sports Coach of the Year and Decade honor, as well as recognition from Max Preps as both the National Coach of the Year and National Coach of the Decade.
Coach Negro currently resides in Fountain Valley with his extremely supportive wife, Carrie (St. Joseph HS, &rsquo91) and their two beautiful daughters, Rylie (17 years) and Reese (14 years). In addition to his coaching duties, Coach Negro serves as a member of the CIF Southern Section Football Coaches Advisory Committee, is a member of the Eastbay Team Sales Advisory Board, and an annual participant of the Nike High School Elite Coaches Summit.
Bosco Verticale / Boeri Studio
Text description provided by the architects. The first example of a ‘Vertical Forest’ (il Bosco Verticale) was inaugurated in October 2014 in Milan in the Porta Nuova Isola area, as part of a wider renovation project led by Hines Italia. Milan’s Vertical Forest consists of two towers of 80 and 112 metres, hosting 480 large and medium trees, 300 small trees, 11,000 perennial and covering plants and 5,000 shrubs. The equivalent - over an urban surface of 1,500 m2 – of 20,000 m2 of forest and undergrowth.
The Vertical Forest is an architectural concept which replaces traditional materials on urban surfaces using the changing polychromy of leaves for its walls. The biological architect relies on a screen of vegetation, needing to create a suitable microclimate and filter sunlight, and rejecting the narrow technological and mechanical approach to environmental sustainability.
The Vertical Forest increases biodiversity. It promotes the formation of an urban ecosystem where various plant types create a separate vertical environment, but which works within the existing network, able to be inhabited by birds and insects (with an initial estimate of 1,600 specimens of birds and butterflies). In this way, it constitutes a spontaneous factor for repopulating the city’s flora and fauna.
The Vertical Forest helps to build a microclimate and to filter fine particles contained in the urban environment. The diversity of plants helps to develop the microclimate which produces humidity, absorbs CO2 and particles, produces oxygen, and protects against radiation and noise pollution.
The Vertical Forest is an anti-sprawl method which helps to control and reduce urban expansion. In terms of urban density, each tower constitutes the equivalent of a peripheral area of single family houses and buildings of around 50,000 m2.
The choice of species and their distribution according to the orientation and height of façades is the result of three years of studies carried out alongside a group of botanists and ethologists. The plants which are used on the building were pre-cultivated in a nursery in order for them to become accustomed to similar conditions to those which they will find on the balconies.
The Vertical Forest is an ever-evolving landmark of the city, whose colours change depending on the season and the different natures of the plants used. This offers Milan’s population an ev- er-changing view of the city.
The management of the basins where the plants grow is the responsibility of the condominium, as is the maintenance and replacement of all vegetation and the number of plants established for each basin.
Hydration and irrigation system:
Following micro-meteorological studies, the calculation of irrigation requirements was carried out by examining climatic characteristics and was diversified depending on the exposure of each façade and the distribution of vegetation on each floor.
On March 11, 1776, from his headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Washington issued a General Order directing Colonels and Commanding Officers of regiments of the Continental Army to select four men from each regiment who would form his personal guard.
Letters to Caleb Gibbs
The Library of Congress owns numerous letters sent between George Washington and Caleb Gibbs.
Appointed the commander of the Commander-in-Chief&rsquos Guard on March 12, 1776, Caleb Gibbs served as both the head of headquarters security and chief steward of George Washington&rsquos military household for nearly five years during the War for Independence. Before retiring as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, George Washington attested that Gibbs, &ldquoon all occasions &hellipbehaved with propriety & honor that he several times performed the duty of a temporary Aid with fidelity and intelligence &ndash and that having been present at the various skirmishes & actions he always conducted himself as a brave & discreet officer.&rdquo 1
The third child of Robert and Sarah Gibbs, Caleb was baptized on September 25, 1748, at the Second Congregational Church in Newport, Rhode Island. 2 By 1769, he had moved to Marblehead, Massachusetts and became acquainted with local patriot leader John Glover. After turning &ldquoout a Volunteer at the Battle of Lexington,&rdquo Gibbs was appointed Adjutant of Glover&rsquos regiment on April 24, 1775, with the rank of lieutenant. 3 As the British Army prepared to evacuate Boston in March of 1776, General Washington recognized the shift in the war and saw a need to establish a guard &ldquofor himself and [his] Baggage&rdquo in the General Orders of March 11. 4
Washington was impressed with Caleb Gibb&rsquos supervisory function in one of the best disciplined units in the Continental Army and selected the New Englander to command the guards the following day with the rank of captain. The young officer was initially tasked with coordinating the security of the headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief, but quickly and ably took on the supervision of its daily operations. 5
Moreover, Gibbs would command detachments for special combat missions at various times during the war. 6 For the commendable execution of his duties, Gibbs was promoted to the rank of major on July 29, 1778. 7 Despite a dust-up in 1779, 8 George Washington thought well of the &ldquogood-natured&rdquo Yankee and publicly thanked him in general orders for &ldquohis Conduct while in the command of his Corps of Guards&rdquo when Gibbs transferred to the 2nd Massachusetts Regiment in the spring of 1781. 9
Gibbs was wounded in the ankle at the Battle of Yorktown 10 but remained on active duty with Henry Jackson&rsquos Continental Regiment until mid-1784. 11 In 1798 during the Quasi-War crisis with France, Gibbs&rsquo name was put forward by George Washington to command one of the Massachusetts regiments in the Provisional Army. However, this idea was rejected by several members of Congress. Washington protested and cited his service &ldquothrough the whole Revolutionary war&rdquo and lamentably concluded that a &ldquoVeto of a Member of Congress&hellipwas more respected & Sufficient to set [Gibbs] aside.&rdquo 12
After the war, Caleb Gibbs settled in Boston in 1785, where he married, began a family, and struggled to establish himself in private business. 13 After several appeals to President Washington for government employ, 14 he was appointed first as a clerk at the Boston Navy Yard in 1794 and then superintendent in 1812. 15 Caleb Gibbs passed away on November 6, 1818. 16
Samuel K. Fore
Harlan Crow Library
2. Arnold, James N., ed. Rhode Island Vital Records, 1636-1850. First Series. Births, Marriages & Deaths. Vol. VIII. Episcopal & Congregational. (Providence: Narragansett Historical Society, 1896), 445.
3. John Glover, "Certificate of Service for Caleb Gibbs, 8 Nov. 1779," Harlan Crow Library.
4. "General Orders, 11 March 1776," Founders Online, National Archives. Source: The Papers of George Washington, Revolutionary War Series, vol. 3, 1 January 1776?&ndash?31 March 1776, ed. Philander D. Chase. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1988, pp. 448&ndash449.
5. See, for example, "From George Washington to Captain Caleb Gibbs, 22 April 1777," Founders Online, National Archives. Source: The Papers of George Washington, Revolutionary War Series, vol. 9, 28 March 1777?&ndash?10 June 1777, ed. Philander D. Chase. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, p. 236.
6. See, for example, "Caleb Gibbs to William Maxwell, 8 June 1777," George Washington Papers, Library of Congress.
7. See "Robert Morris to Gouverneur Morris, 16 June 1778," in Smith, Paul H., ed. Letters of Delegates to Congress, Vol. X, 1 June-30 Sept. 1778. (Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1983),109-11 & Ford, Worthington C., ed. Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789: Vol. XI, 1778. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1908), 730.
8. See "George Washington to William Colfax, 2 October 1779," The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799. Vol. XVI, 29 July-20 Oct. 1779, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1937), pp. 393-394.
9. "General Orders, 23 April 1781," Founders Online, National Archives. Gibbs, later "perusing" his papers, joined his new regiment on the same day see "To George Washington from Caleb Gibbs, 24 October 1785," Founders Online, National Archives. Source: The Papers of George Washington, Confederation Series, vol. 3, 19 May 1785?&ndash?31 March 1786, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994, pp. 314&ndash317.
11. "Officers of the [1st American Regiment] to John Pierce, June 21, 1784," Papers of the Continental Congress (M247, RG360, i63, r76, pp. 49-51), National Archives & Records Administration.
12. "From George Washington to James McHenry, 25 March 1799," Founders Online, National Archives. Source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 3, 16 September 1798?&ndash?19 April 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot and Edward G. Lengel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, 438&ndash44.
13. "To George Washington from Caleb Gibbs, 24 October 1785," Founders Online, National Archives. Source: The Papers of George Washington, Confederation Series, vol. 3, 19 May 1785?&ndash?31 March 1786, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994, 314&ndash17 Massachusetts Gazette, January 19, 1787.
14. "To George Washington from Caleb Gibbs, 11 March 1789," Founders Online, National Archives. Source: The Papers of George Washington, Presidential Series, vol. 1, 24 September 1788?&ndash?31 March 1789, ed. Dorothy Twohig. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1987, 380&ndash1.
15. "Memorandum, 31 December 1794," War Department Letterbook, Records Group 45, National Archives & Records Administration The Columbian, January 30, 1812.
16. Boston Intelligencer & Evening Gazette, November 7, 1818.
Wehmann, Howard H. &ldquoTo Major Gibbs with Much Esteem&rdquo Prologue 4 (1972): 227-232.