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Language of Franks vs later French


I am reading that before the 8-9th(10th?) century, Franks were a Germanic-speaking nation.

How it is possible to explain that in later centuries their language became a totally different Latin-based language with no traces of German origins? How many centuries did the switch from Germanic to a Latin-based language take, and was the switch related to Catholicism?

Are there traces of German roots in old/modern French language?

Are there other examples in history where a nation completely switched its language?


You neglect the fact that the 'indigenous' population of France before the Great Migrations (of mainly Germanic tribes) was Gallo-Roman, and by the end of the Roman era (5th century AD), the populace spoke a dialect of Vulgar Latin, which evolved into a distinct "Gallic" Latin over the following centuries. Note however that the ancient Celtic (Gaulish) language spoken in France before the Roman conquest has had minimal impact on the French language, largely thanks to centuries of strong Romanisation. Germanic influence was undoubtedly greater, estimated at some 10% of the modern French vocabulary. There was also some influence on grammar and pronunciation, although the extent of this is debatable.

The Frankish invasions, which started in earnest in the late 5th century AD, added a Germanic admixture to both the population and pre-existing language ("Gallic Latin", if you will). However, the existing population and language was by then firmly defined, and the relatively small number of Frankish invaders (despite their conquering) only influenced the French language in a minor way, eventually adopting the predominant native language, with minor influences by their own Germanic mother tongue (mainly Frankish). This situation was mirrored to some degree in the later Norman invasion of England (where the roles of Germanic and Romance languages are in fact reversed).

If I were to make an educated guess, the predominant factors behind the native Gallo-Roman (Romance) language winning out was the overwhelming greater population that spoke that language rather than Frankish/Old Germanic during the formative years of France/the Frankish realms. Also worth noting is that at the time of the invasions, the native Gallic population would undoubtedly have been better educated and hugely more literature, thanks to the Roman influence. The Germanic peoples at the time however, were only just shedding their illiteracy, making it rather hard for their own language should supplant the existing one.

Note:

@AlainPannetier provided a great source (book) in the comment section that states that the estimated invading population of Germanic Franks was around 5% of the native Gallo-Roman population at the time of Clovis (first king of the Franks.) Indeed, the fact that post-Roman Gaul has a well-established Gallo-Roman upper class also meant that it would have been much harder for Vulgar Latin to have be supplanted at the time.


As backup for Noldorin's point, note that the (French-speaking) Normans conqured England in 1066 and made French the country's official language for centuries. This didn't really change the fact that the vast majority of Englishmen spoke only English, and still do (although with a lot of French loan-words for things mostly of concern to the upper-classes). In later years, England was ruled by several monarchs who did not speak English.

Altaic speakers (Mongols, Jurchen) conquered China multiple times, and established ruling dynasties (eg: Yuan, Qing). That didn't even come close to changing the native language(s) of the country. The rulers were eventually absorbed into the culture, not the other way around.

Don't confuse the rulers with the people.


The Rulers of France: From 840 Until 2017

France developed out of the Frankish kingdoms that succeeded the Roman Empire, and more directly, out of the declining Carolingian Empire. The latter had been established by the great Charlemagne but began splitting into pieces soon after his death. One of these pieces became the heart of France, and French monarchs would struggle to build a new state out of it. Over time, they succeeded.

Opinions vary as to who the 'first' French king was, and the following list includes all of the transitional monarchs, including the Carolingian and not French Louis I. Although Louis wasn't king of the modern entity we call France, all the later French Louis' (culminating with Louis XVIII in 1824) were numbered sequentially, using him as the starting point, and it's important to remember that Hugh Capet didn't just invent France, there was a long, confused history before him.

This is a chronological list of the leaders who have ruled France the dates given are the periods of said rule.


Language of Franks vs later French - History

No region has caused a more serious headache to both France and Germany than that of the Alsace-Lorraine , or as the Germans call it: Elsass-Lothringen .

To this day, some people still wonder: Is it originally French or German?

Starting from the mid-seventeenth century, the Alsace-Lorraine was French, no question about it.

That is, until it was lost to Germany between 1871 and 1919.

The temporary loss of this mineral-rich territory proved to be a rather traumatic experience for many a French person.

So much that it provoked a corresponding temporary loss of sanity of national proportions. This was the pathetic social phenomenon known in French history as “revanchisme” (from the French word “revanche“, meaning “revenge.”)

The root causes of the territorial dispute, however, go way back in time.

The Alsace-Lorraine region was part of a “messy inheritance“, so to speak, between the grandsons of Charlemagne.

Of course, as King of the Franks, Charlemagne, whose realm stretched over the European heartland, can easily be claimed by France.

After all, it was the Franks who gave France its name: “ la France “, land of les Francs (the Franks), long before Charlemagne was even born.

But the Holy Emperor can also be claimed by the Germans as one of their own, since the Franks are technically Germanic people, as opposed to the native people of France, who are gaulois, and therefore of Celtic stock.

But wait, ce n’est pas tout (that’s not all.)

Another way to see things, still in a narrow “national perspective”, is to highlight the significance of le lieu de naissance(the birthplace) of Charlemagne:

Neither in modern France, nor in modern Germany, but in la Belgique , in a town called Héristal, not too far from Liège .

Alors, que retenir de cela? (what to retain from this?)

To simplify matters, just remember that both France and Germany come originally from the division of Charlemagne’s empire between three of his grandsons (a fourth one had died in the meantime): Louis, Charles le Chauve(meaning “the Bald“ he just liked to be clean-shaven), and Lothair.

  • Louis took the eastern part of the Carolongien empire (“Carolingien” means belonging to Charlemagne), called East Francia, and thus was known as “ Louis the German ” (or “ Ludwig der Deutsche ” in Deutsch. ) Of course, this territory was the “ancestor” of modern Germany.
  • Charles le Chauve, the “bald” of the three brothers, took over the western portion of the empire, West Francia, which roughly corresponds to today’s France.
  • Finally, Lothair, who found himself “sandwiched” between the two, ended up taking Middle Francia. This wasn’t so bad of a deal (concluded at the famous Verdun treaty in 843, shown in the picture above), considering that his two brothers had no previous plans of offering him a share in their grandpa’s empire.

Now, back to our main subject.

Notice that the German name of the Lorraine region, “Lothringen, clearly echoes the name of Lothair(in French Lothair e ), which, as some etymological explanations go, stands for “famous warrior.”

But did Lothair (lot-hair), the “loser” in the conflict with his brothers, owe his fame to other things than his capacités martiales(martial skills)?

Like maybe having a “lot of hair“?

If that were the case, one could then argue that West Francia, namely France, would have been better off with him than his “voluntarily bald brother, Charles.

After all, a huge part of this originally Celtic territory was for long known as “la Gaule chevelue“, meaning “Hairy Gaul.

Capillary qualities, a symbol of spiritual power, were probably better appreciated there than anywhere else in the Holy Empire.

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Roman influence

The Gaulish language is a Celtic language, which was spoken before the Romans came and conquered the area in the 2nd and 1st centuries before Christ. That put an end to the Gaulish language and the reason why French became a Romance language – it’s because they were forced to speak in the way the Romans speak.

Latin became the dominant language in the region and was a requirement if people wanted to rise up the social ranks. The Gaulish language was eliminated, leaving only about 150 words that were included in the French vocabulary. Today, around 70 of those words became the origin of some of the French words today, such as battu, which became ”battre” meaning to beat or batter and artuas that evolved into ”ardoise,” a color that is close to slate or purplish gray.

With the expansion of the Roman Empire, pure Latin became adulterated by other dialects spoken by the people in the lower ranks of society, leading to the creation of Vulgar Latin.

As early as the 9th century, it was already clear that the French spoken during that time was different from Latin. But with the distinct Latin influences that were inherent in its roots, it is easier for speakers of languages derived from Latin to learn French today.


Language of Franks vs later French - History

Centuries in the making, Modern French owes its existence to a strange combination of conquest, evolution, authoritarian control and revolution.

Long before it was France, Gaul (as it was known to the Romans) was occupied by a variety of Celtic tribes. After Julius Caesar conquered it in the 1 st century BC (veni, vidi, vici), native Celtic tongues were supplanted by a popular form of colloquial Latin, derived from the classical language of the elite, known as vulgar Latin.

In the 4 th century AD, a series of Germanic tribes, including the Burgundians, the Visigoths and the Franks, began invading. Intermixing their Germanic dialects with the vulgar Latin of the indigenous population, dozens of lingua romana rustica, each reflecting the unique language combination of its locality, came about.

When the Franks under Clovis emerged as the dominant force in France in the 5 th century AD, Frankish became the language of the aristocracy. Although few others spoke it at the time, Frankish influence on modern French can still be seen today in words such as blanc, bleu, guère, brun, fauve and trop.

The first record of Old French is Le Serment de Strasbourg, an oath declaring an alliance between the Holy Roman Emperor Charles II and Louis the German in 842. However, among the French people, most still primarily spoke (less than 1% could write) their local lingua romana rustica, and these varied dramatically both nationally and even regionally.

North of the Loire River, the langues d’oil (“oil” being the word for “yes”) was common, with variants including Norman and Gallo. South of the Loire, the langues d’oc,(where “oc” was the word for “yes”), dominated and its variants included Provençal and Languedocian.

Of course, other influences came to bear as well, and in the northeast, Germanic tongues such as Flemish and Alsatian, were still spoken, while in the southwest, Basque and other dialects were common.

In fact, the Old French we know was spoken only in the Île-de-France (the provinces surrounding and including Paris). A complex language, it was difficult to master with its 33 vowels, 16 diphthongs and a variety of other sounds that were difficult to pronounce.

Nonetheless, one of the greatest works of the French literary tradition, the Song of Roland, was written during this period in the 11 th century.

Luckily, the language evolved, and by the 16 th century, French had been greatly simplified. Most of the diphthongs were eradicated and sentence structure became more standardized. Nonetheless, written French retained many of its Latin features, and between those differences and the vast illiteracy of the people, only about 2% of the populace could read and write Middle French.

One giant leap in bringing French to the people occurred in 1539 when King François I issued the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, decreeing that French, not Latin, would be the official language of the country. Although this ensured that administrative records and court proceedings were henceforth recorded in French, most people outside of France’s most elite circles still spoke, and conducted their business in, their local language (also called a patois).

Nonetheless, the language was becoming more popular and publishers were eager to print works in French, although few knew the language’s complex grammatical rules. The resulting situation had consequences we bear today:

It is to this period that today’s French owes its excessively complicated spelling . . . [Authors] left things up to the typographers, who were paid based on word length! The typographers strove to make things more learned and complex . . . . These trendsetters . . . introduc[ed] among other things the cedilla, the apostrophe, and accents. . . .

Historians divide the development of Modern French into several eras.

The Grand Siècle

During the second half of the 17 th Century, under the guidance of powerful leaders such as Cardinal Richelieu and the Sun King, Louis XIV, France enjoyed a period of prosperity known as the Grand Siècle. In order to consolidate their absolute power, centralization and standardization became key. In 1635, Richelieu established the Académie française to promote and police the French language.

The Académie’s grammarians set about the task of keeping the language pure. As a result, many words previously used, particularly those unique to the provinces or borrowed from another language, were expunged. Written and spoken French became more practical and less flowery, and the requirement to leave the plural “s” silent was established.

By 1714, French, which had become the primary language of the aristocracy, was used in an international agreement for the first time with the Treaty of Rastatt. From then until World War I (1914-1919), French remained the language of international diplomacy. As the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V described it:

I speak English to merchants, Italian to women, French to men, Spanish to God and German to my horse.

With the rise of English power after the Treaty of Paris (1763), the revolutionary ideas of its greatest political thinkers such as John Locke had a tremendous influence on French thought and philosophers, including Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire. In addition to stirring up revolutionary ideas about liberty, natural law and the rights of man, these influential Englishmen also contributed to the French vocabulary.

In addition, as transportation improved and people travelled between the cities and countryside for work and commerce, French increasingly became more common and began to supplant local patois. At the same time, improved travel meant greater foreign influence, and as a result, a variety of German, Italian, Greek, Latin and Spanish words entered the French lexicon.

Nonetheless, neither France’s monarchy nor the Catholic Church had any interest in teaching the general populace its national language, to the point where church activities were held in patois and formal instruction was still given in Latin.

The French Revolution

After the storming of the Bastille on July 14 th , 1789, the people began the hard work of creating a Republic. Many believed the best way to effect this was to unite the French people with a common language. As one republican said:

The monarchy had reasons for clinging to the Tower of Babel. In a democracy, keeping citizens ignorant of the national language, unable to control power, is a betrayal of the motherland .. . In a free country, the language must be the same for one and all .. . .

In fact, one such leader, Abbé Grégoire, saw the standardization of the language as an inevitable necessity:

The local dialects, the patois of six million French people who do not speak the national language, will gradually disappear because – and I can’t say it often enough – it is more important politically to eradicate this diversity of coarse idioms, which prolong the infancy of reason and the age of prejudice.

During the Reign of Terror, the desire to fight against: “les idioms anciens, welches, gascons, celtiques, wisigots, phocéens et orientaux” reached a peak and, in early 1794, a decree issued, directing the immediate (within 10 days) appointment of French speaking teachers in all districts where French was not spoken. Although some of the stricter requirements proposed during the Terror were eventually abandoned, ultimately, these measures led to French, alone, being the official language in all schools.

By the 1880s, free and mandatory education was established throughout France by the Jules Ferry laws, which incorporated the requirement that instruction be given in French. Today, France enjoys a 99% literacy rate.

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Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. France is a class-stratified society whose middle class did not develop significantly until the 1960s. Historically, society was divided among the nobility, the bourgeoisie , the peasants, and the urban proletariat. The French system was the basis for much of Karl Marx's analysis of class struggles during the nineteenth century. The dominant class now is referred to as the bourgeoisie, although this term is difficult to define. Primarily, this class is considered to be the group that controls education and industry. A major source of debate is the issue of social mobility for people of different social origins. Statistics indicate that there is still a strong tendency for children to remain in the occupational class of their parents. For instance, in 1994, almost 50 percent of the children of workers became workers only 9 percent of them became elite workers. Fifty-six percent of the children of elite workers became elite workers. The school system is blamed for the lack of social mobility.

Symbols of Social Stratification. Social stratification has two main axes: urban versus rural and economic class position. The urban upper class generally has ties to provincial seats of power. The bourgeoisie establish the major tenets of good taste and refinement, of being "civilized." One's taste in music, art, food, and leisure activities generally reveals one's social class origins. Symbols of a higher class position include knowing not only about fine art but about the newest trends in avant-garde art, understanding and being able to purchase fine wines, and dressing with understatement while revealing refined aesthetic sensibilities. Class consciousness is very strong. "Symbolic capital" plays a large role in social class, and not only wealth but family connections and lifestyle determine one's social position and opportunities.


Language of Franks vs later French - History


The Franks by Albert Kretschmer

The Franks began as a number of Germanic tribes that migrated from northern Europe into Gaul. This is where the country of France is today and the name for France comes from the Franks. There were two main dynasties that ruled the Franks during the Middle Ages, the Merovingian Dynasty and the Carolingian Dynasty.

The Franks were first united under the leadership of King Clovis in 509 AD. He founded the Merovingian Dynasty which would rule the Franks for the next 200 years. Clovis led the Franks in victories over the Visigoths, forcing them from Gaul and into Spain. He also converted to Christianity and was the first king of the Franks to be recognized as king by the Pope.

The Merovingian Dynasty came to an end when Pepin the Short took power with the support of the Frankish nobles. He began the Carolingian Dynasty which would rule the Franks from 751 to 843.

The greatest ruler of the Carolingian Empire and the Franks was Charlemagne who ruled from 742 to 814. Charlemagne expanded the Frankish Empire to rule a large portion of Europe. He brought many reforms to the Franks including a strong government, written laws, education, a monetary standard, and support for the arts.

On December 25, 800 AD, the Pope crowned Charlemagne as the first Holy Roman Emperor. This began the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Emperor was considered the protector of the Catholic Church. He also had the backing of the church and was considered the leader of the monarchs in Europe.

After Charlemagne died, his son Louis the Pious ruled as sole emperor. However, Louis had three sons. According to Frankish tradition, the empire was divided up between the king's sons. When King Louis died in 843, the Frankish Empire was divided into three separate states which would later become countries in Western Europe such as Germany and France.

In many ways the Franks were at the heart of the culture of the Middle Ages. It was the Franks who developed the concept of the knight and the feudal system.

One of the most powerful units of the Frankish army was the heavily armored cavalry. These soldiers became known as knights. Because metal armor and war horses were so expensive, only the very wealthy could afford to become knights. Knights were often awarded land for their services at war. This helped to develop the feudal system.

Under the feudal system, the land was divided up among knights or lords. In return for the land, the knights pledged to fight for the king. This land was known as a fief and both the land and the title of knight were often inherited by the oldest son.


Language of Franks vs later French - History

  • 600 - The colony of Massalia is founded by the Ancient Greeks. This would later become the city of Marseille, the oldest city in France.
  • 400 - Celtic tribes begin to settle in the region.
  • 122 - Southeastern France (called Provence) is taken over by the Roman Republic.
  • 52 - Julius Caesar conquers Gaul (most of modern day France).




The Storming of the Bastille


Napoleon is Defeated in Russia

Brief Overview of the History of France

The land that today makes up the country of France has been settled for thousands of years. In 600 BC, a portion of the Greek Empire settled in Southern France and founded the city that is today Marseille, the oldest city in France. At the same time, Celtic Gauls were becoming prominent in other areas of France. The Gauls would sack the city of Rome in 390 BC. Later, the Romans would conquer Gaul and the area would become a productive part of the Roman Empire until the 4th century.


In the 4th century, the Franks, which is where the name France comes from, began to take power. In 768 Charlemagne united the Franks and began to expand the kingdom. He was named the Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope and is today considered the founder of both the French and German monarchies. The French monarchy would continue to be a great power in Europe for the next 1000 years.

In 1792, the French Republic was proclaimed by the French Revolution. This didn't last long, however, as Napoleon grabbed power and made himself Emperor. He then proceeded to conquer most of Europe. Napoleon was later defeated and in 1870 the Third Republic was declared.

France suffered greatly in both World War I and World War II. During World War II France was defeated and occupied by the Germans. Allied forces liberated the country in 1944 after four years of German rule. A new constitution was set up by Charles de Gaulle and the Fourth Republic was formed.


Robespierre & the Reign of Terror in the history of France

In 1793 civil liberties were discontinued and The Declaration of the Rights of Man became obsolete.

Maximilien Robespierre, leader and staunch supporter of the Reign of Terror, said , ". Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. ". (Speech on the Justification of the Use of Terror).

By 1794, 30,000 French men and women had been murdered for one thin accusation or another, 2,400 people in Paris alone had been killed.

The Terror had been designed to discourage rebellions by the ordinary citizens.

A man simply accused of complaining (in speech or in written word) of the government would not be allowed to speak in his own defense and might easily and quickly have himself annihilated.

Too late for many, Robespierre was finally arrested and beheaded, the last victim of the Reign of Terror.


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…claims, particularly among the British, French, and Americans, but there seems to be broad agreement that the first serious effort was carried out by a French nobleman, Claude-François-Dorothée, marquis de Jouffroy d’Abbans, on the Doubs River at Baum-des-Dames in the Franche-Comté in 1776. This trial was not a success, but…

…policy with the Île de France of encouraging tourist travel through luxurious accommodations (changing from third class, which was little more than steerage with private cabins, to tourist class, which was simple but comfortable). The Normandie offered seven accommodation classes in a total of 1,975 berths the crew numbered 1,345.…

…the following century English and French merchants controlled about half of the transatlantic slave trade, taking a large percentage of their human cargo from the region of West Africa between the Sénégal and Niger rivers.

…Italy reached an understanding with France that each would remain neutral in the event of an attack on the other. Although the alliance was again renewed in 1907 and 1912, Italy entered World War I in May 1915 in opposition to Germany and Austria-Hungary.

Ancient

In France, La Tène cemeteries contained rich flat graves that had two-wheeled wagons rather than the earlier four-wheeled ones. These graves held large amounts of beautifully manufactured Celtic objects such as swords and torques, as well as Roman and Greek imports, and there were clear distinctions…

…molds, were deposited together in France.

Colonies and exploration

Central African Republic

…Belgium, Great Britain, Germany, and France competed for control of equatorial Africa. Belgium, Germany, and France each wanted the region that would eventually become the Central African Republic. The French were ultimately successful and named it the French Congo (later French Equatorial Africa), with its capital at Brazzaville. The French…

The Gbaya resisted French forces throughout the colonial period, notably in the early 1920s, because of the brutal impressment of Gbaya men and women as porters and labourers. In 1928 they began what became a three-year revolt in response to conscription of slave labour for the Congo-Ocean Railway.…

Niger

The French conquest began in earnest only in 1899. It nearly met with disaster owing to the local population’s determined resistance against the notorious expedition in 1899 led by French Captains Paul Voulet and Charles-Paul-Louis Chanoine (also known as Julien Chanoine). It was only in 1922,…

…Niger by conflict between the French military and guerrilla resistance, the lack of political parties until 1946, and the international isolation of this large, thinly populated territory. When the Fifth Republic constitution of France was adopted in 1958, Niger chose to become an autonomous republic, but only the French Tricolor…

North America

The policy of France was much the same, even though the physical conditions of their territories prevented creation of large estates or mining operations. The first Frenchmen on the continent were mostly entrepreneurs interested in the lucrative fur trade who hired Indians to collect and carry furs from…

…inevitable that Great Britain and France should wage a struggle for mastery in North America. Two powers could not occupy the same land without a desperate battle for supremacy. In its century-long course and its far-reaching consequences, this became one of the epic contests of modern history. It was a…

…the entire Mississippi basin for France. Within a generation the Mississippi became a vital link between France’s Gulf of Mexico settlements and Canada, and La Salle’s claim was vaguely designated as “Louisiana.”

France, occupied with wars in Europe to preserve its own territorial integrity, was not able to devote as much time or effort to overseas expansion as did Spain and Portugal. Beginning in the early 16th century, however, French fishermen established an outpost in Newfoundland, and…

…American Atlantic seaboard possessions of France in the 17th and 18th centuries. Centred in what are now New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, Acadia was probably intended to include parts of Maine (U.S.) and Quebec.

Spain, France, England, and Russia colonized Northern America for reasons that differed from one another’s and that were reflected in their formal policies concerning indigenous peoples. The Spanish colonized the Southeast, the Southwest, and California. Their goal was to create a local peasant class indigenous peoples…

Frenchman Jacques Cartier was the first European to navigate the great entrance to Canada, the Saint Lawrence River. In 1534, in a voyage conducted with great competence, Cartier explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence and claimed its shores for the French crown. In the following…

…years’ war (1754–63) fought between France and Great Britain. (The more-complex European phase was the Seven Years’ War [1756–63].) It determined control of the vast colonial territory of North America. Three earlier phases of this extended contest for overseas mastery included King William’s War (1689–97), Queen Anne’s War (1702–13), and…

…the Spanish returned Louisiana to France, and three years later the United States, under the leadership of Pres. Thomas Jefferson, bought Louisiana from the French emperor Napoleon I. The Louisiana Purchase, a vast acquisition of land for the country, included New Orleans and much of present-day Louisiana state, as well…

Portuguese, Spanish, French, and English explorers did probe the islands and the bays and rivers of the “maine” (mainland) throughout the 16th century by the first decade of the 17th century, summer fisheries had been established on some of the coastal islands, and fur trade had begun…

…helped pave the way for French control of Michigan. Although some of the region’s indigenous peoples and the newcomers initially engaged in skirmishes, these soon gave way to more amiable relationships. Many native individuals became fur trappers, trade middlemen, or guides, while others, particularly women, focused on providing food to…

…in the 17th century, when French explorers came searching for the Northwest Passage. The first settlement was made where the French fur traders, known as voyageurs, had to leave Lake Superior to make a 9-mile (14-km) portage around the falls and rapids of the Pigeon River (at the present-day northeastern…

In 1699 a French expedition led by Pierre le Moyne d’Iberville established France’s claim to the lower Mississippi valley. French settlements were soon established at Fort Maurepas, Mobile, Biloxi, Fort Rosalie, and New Orleans.

France and Spain struggled for control until 1763, leaving only the natives to contest Spanish authority until the return of the French flag in 1800. Three years later, through the Louisiana Purchase, Oklahoma was acquired by the United States.

…of Saint-Germain-en-Laye restored it to France. There were other attempts by the British to capture this stronghold, but all failed until the famous Battle of Quebec on the Plains of Abraham (adjacent to the city) in 1759, in which the French were defeated. Shortly thereafter most of the French-held territory…

Tunisia

…periods of Ottoman and then French rule but also because populations of Jews and Christians have lived among a Muslim majority for centuries. Similarly, the capital, Tunis, blends ancient Arab souks and mosques and modern-style office buildings into one of the most handsome and lively cities in the region. Other…

…at the time of the French invasion of Algiers, Tunisia was officially a province of the Ottoman Empire but in reality was an autonomous state. Because the principal military threat had long come from neighbouring Algeria, the reigning bey of Tunisia, Ḥusayn, cautiously went along with assurances from the French…

…country was deeply imbued with French culture during the 75 years of the protectorate, which ended in 1956.

…important military base during the French protectorate (1881–1955) and, with the development of its strategic naval base, the town also played an important role in World War II. Occupied by the Germans in 1942 and retaken by the Allies in 1943, Bizerte offered control of the Straits of Sicily. France…

…of independence that ended when France launched a war of conquest in 1830.

Relations with France have frequently been contentious. Disputes developed soon after independence over the Algerian expropriation of abandoned French property (1963) and its nationalization of French petroleum interests (1971). There were also problems with the Algerian migrants living and working in France, who consistently remained at the…

French settlers who arrived in Algeria in the latter half of the 19th century built several hundred “villages of colonization” in the countryside. Often geometric in layout, these settlements replicated French villages and house designs and often provided important service centres in areas of dispersed…

…time the provisional capital of France. In the 1950s, when the Algerian uprising against France began, the capital city was a focal point in the struggle. After 1962, when Algeria became independent, many far-reaching changes were made to the city as the new government set out to create a modern…

France sponsored an expedition, similar in intent to Flinders’s, at the same time. Under Nicolas Baudin, it gave French names to many features (including “Terre Napoléon” for the southern coast) and gathered much information but did little new exploration. It was on the northern coast,…

…on external support, primarily from France and international organizations. This support has rendered a little less painful the formidable economic stagnation and low standard of living of the overwhelming majority of the population.

…the 18th century the English, French, and Portuguese all possessed fortified posts in Ouidah. The French first established a factory in Allada in 1670 but moved from there to Ouidah in 1671. Although this factory was abandoned in the 1690s, the French built a fort (known as Fort Saint Louis)…

…State, to which Great Britain, France, and Germany had already agreed in principle.

…royal Portuguese authority before the French made a determined effort to establish a permanent colony there. In 1555 French troops took possession of the beautiful harbour of Rio de Janeiro, which, inexplicably, the Portuguese had neglected to occupy. A large Portuguese force under Mem de Sá, the governor-general, blockaded the…

France obtained a protectorate over the Yatenga empire in 1895, and the French officers Paul Voulet and Charles Paul Louis Chanoine (also known as Julien Chanoine) defeated the morho naba Boukari-Koutou (Wobogo) of Mossi in 1896 and then proceeded to overrun the Gurunsi lands. The…

At this point the French, who had been ceded much of Cochinchina (southern Vietnam), sought to assert Vietnamese claims to Cambodian tribute, seeing the adjacent Cambodian provinces as future colonial possessions. The French forced Norodom to accept French protection early in 1863, but, before the agreement was ratified in…

French control over Cambodia was an offshoot of French involvement in the neighbouring provinces of Vietnam. France’s decision to advance into Cambodia came only when it feared that British and Siamese expansion might threaten its access to the largely unmapped Mekong…

…in two small portions and French rule in the remainder of the territory. These League of Nations mandates (later United Nations [UN] trusts) were referred to as French Cameroun and British Cameroons.

” A French fleet, however, reached the Cape first and established a garrison there to help the Dutch defend it. The French presence brought prosperity and gaiety to Cape Town and initiated a surge of building.

…Dutch were replaced by the French as the leading slave merchants on the north coast of the Congo region as the scale of the trade grew rapidly. Congo captives became the dominant population in Saint-Domingue, later called Haiti, which rose to be the richest of all the world’s colonies and…

…early 1900s it came under French control when the resistance of the Sanūsī brotherhood was somewhat subdued. The French considered the region ungovernable, and, following Chad’s independence in 1960, BET remained under French military administration. The French finally withdrew from the area in January 1965, and the region was incorporated…

By this time the partition of Africa among the European powers was entering its final phase. Rābiḥ was overthrown in 1900, and the traditional Kanembu dynasty was reestablished under French protection. Chad became part of the federation of French Equatorial Africa in 1910.…

In 1843 France officially took possession of Mayotte, and in 1886 it placed the other three islands under its protection. Administratively attached to Madagascar in 1912, Comoros became an overseas territory of France in 1947 and was given representation in the French National Assembly. In 1961, a…

…the river in 1877, but France acquired jurisdiction in 1880 when Pierre de Brazza signed a treaty with the Tio ruler. The formal proclamation of the colony of French Congo came in 1891. Early French efforts to exploit their possession led to ruthless treatment of the local people and the…

…in the 1830s that allowed France to build forts and trading posts. France withdrew in 1870, but private merchants remained. Arthur Verdier sent explorers north and imported the first coffee plants. By the 1890s, inland penetration by traders such as Marcel Triech-Laplène and military missions such as those of Capt.…

Syria was forcibly placed under French mandate, and Damascus fell to the army of Gen. Henri Gouraud on July 25, 1920, following the battle of Maysalūn. Damascus resisted the French takeover, and despite the French bombardment of the city in 1925, the resistance continued until early 1927. A new urban…

French decolonization proved more troublesome. France had given the name “Indo-China” to a million square miles in Southeast Asia, an area nearly 10 times the size of the mother country, which it had colonized in the 19th century—a union of settlements and dependencies in Tonkin,…

…States had urged Britain and France to dismantle their empires in the aftermath of World War II, but, once those countries became Washington’s most potent allies in the Cold War, the United States offered grudging support for Anglo-French resistance to nationalist and Communist forces in their colonies. President Truman’s Point…

The first colonists (1632) were French, but, with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), Great Britain and France agreed to treat the island as neutral ground and leave it to the Caribs. From that time until 1805, Dominica went back and…

…when Napoleon I led a French army in a short occupation of the country.

It was not until the French occupation of Egypt (1798–1801) that the first survey was made across the isthmus. Napoleon personally investigated the remains of the ancient canal. J.M. Le Père, his chief lines-of-communication engineer, erroneously calculated that the level of the Red Sea was 10 metres (33 feet) above…

Although several projects for a French occupation of Egypt had been advanced in the 17th and 18th centuries, the purpose of the expedition that sailed under Napoleon I from Toulon

The French navigator Louis-Antoine de Bougainville founded the islands’ first settlement, on East Falkland, in 1764, and he named the islands the Malovines. The British, in 1765, were the first to settle West Falkland, but they were driven off in 1770 by the Spanish, who had…

…were less successful with the French, who wanted them to withdraw from Egypt. Once it became apparent that the British were determined to remain, the French cast about for means to force the British from the Nile valley. In 1893 an elaborate plan was concocted by which a French expedition…

…were less successful with the French, who wanted them to withdraw from Egypt.

French merchants from Rouen opened a trading centre in the coastal village of Sinnamary in 1624, followed by others from Rouen or Paris who founded Cayenne in 1643. The Treaty of Breda awarded the territory to France in 1667, and the Dutch, who had occupied…

…to dry their catch after France gave up all other claims to the island in 1713 previously, Newfoundland had been claimed by France although occupied by England. As defined by the Treaty of Paris (1783), the French Shore extended westward around the island from Cape St. John in the north…

By 1800 the British were becoming the leading traders in manufactures throughout the Gulf of Guinea. After 1815 the French sought to compete more actively in the commercial sphere and to join Britain in combating the slave trade. To these ends, Capt. Édouard…

…made it easy for the French and British to dominate the territory.

…Djallon placed his country under French protection in 1881. The independent Malinke state, ruled by Samory Touré, resisted the French military until 1898, and isolated small groups of Africans continued to resist the French until the end of World War I (1914–18).

The French settled first in a trading post at Sinnamary in 1624 and later established Cayenne (1643).

During a brief French occupation, Longchamps, later called Georgetown, was established at the mouth of the Demerara River the Dutch renamed it Stabroek and continued to develop it. The British took over in 1796 and remained in possession, except for short intervals, until 1814, when they purchased Demerara,…

The Treaty of Rijswijk (1697) formally ceded the western third of Hispaniola from Spain to France, which renamed it Saint-Domingue. The colony’s population and economic output grew rapidly during the 18th century, and it became

Under French rule, Hanoi again became an important administrative centre. In 1902 it was made the capital of French Indochina. This was largely because of Tonkin’s proximity to southern China, where the French sought to expand their influence, and because of Tonkin’s mineral resources. Hanoi remained…

…by the opening of a French coaling station at Obock on the Afar coast. Britain sought to close off the Nile valley to the French by facilitating Rome’s aspirations in the Horn. Thus, after 1885, Italy occupied coastal positions in Ethiopia and in southern Somalia. This limited the French to…

The British and the French participated in the wars of succession that followed his death in 1748.

The French had shown an interest in the East from the early years of the 16th century, but individual efforts had been checked by the Portuguese. The first viable French company, the French East India Company, was launched by the minister of finance…

…was occupied with the revived French danger, which was once again serious with the Treaty of Tilsit (1807) and Napoleon I’s resulting alliance with Russia. To guard against a French-sponsored Russian attack, British missions were sent to Afghanistan, to Persia, and to Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler of the Punjab.…

France entered into negotiations with Bangkok (1886) to define the Siamese-Vietnamese frontier and won the right to install a vice-consul in Luang Prabang. The office was entrusted to Auguste Pavie, who, partly because of his popularity with the Laotians, succeeded in winning Luang Prabang over…

…of the 17th century, the French and English, aided by buccaneers of their respective nationalities, were able to take over the small islands, Jamaica, and the western end of Hispaniola to grow tropical crops, above all sugar, for themselves. The societies that grew up there were not exactly Latin American…

…also invaded in 1642 the French established Fort-Dauphin in the southeast and maintained it until 1674. One of their governors, Étienne de Flacourt, wrote the first substantial description of the island. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Madagascar was frequented by European pirates (among them Captain William Kidd)…

The French, who established a fort at Médine in western Mali in 1855, viewed the Ségou Tukulor empire as the principal obstacle to their acquisition of the Niger River valley. Fearful of British designs on the same region, they engaged in a series of diplomatic overtures…

After the death of du Parquet, his widow governed the island in the name of her children, but her policies were often opposed by the settlers. In 1658 the French king, Louis XIV, resumed sovereignty over the island and paid an indemnity to…

The French competed for access to this trade, first with the Dutch and, in the 18th century, with the English, and it was to the French that much of the Saharan coast was ceded in European treaties early in the 19th century. French claims to sovereignty…

In 1767 the French crown took over the island’s administration from the French East India Company. The French authorities brought African slaves to the island and established sugar planting as the main industry, and the colony prospered.

…settlers were repeatedly attacked by French forces and Carib Indians. The French took possession of the island in 1664 and again in 1667, but it was restored to England by the Treaty of Breda. French forces sacked the island in 1712 and captured it for the last time in 1782,…

During the French invasion of Algeria in 1830, the sultan of Morocco, Mawlāy ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (1822–59), briefly sent troops to occupy Tlemcen but withdrew them after French protests. The Algerian leader Abdelkader in 1844 took refuge from the French in Morocco. A Moroccan army was sent to…

When French colonizers first interacted with the Natchez in the early 18th century, the tribal population comprised about 6,000 individuals living in nine villages between the Yazoo and Pearl rivers near the site of the present-day city of Natchez, Miss.

…member of another traditional rivalry—the French or the English. Initially the Huron-French alliance held the upper hand, in no small part because the French trading system was in place several years before those of the Dutch and English. The indigenous coalitions became more evenly matched after 1620, however, as the…

France was almost constantly at war during the 15th and 16th centuries, a situation that spurred an overseas agenda focused on income generation, although territorial expansion and religious conversion were important secondary goals. France expressed an interest in the Americas as early as 1524,…

The French capture of Algiers in 1830, followed by the Ottoman reoccupation of Tripoli in 1835, rudely interrupted the attempts of North Africa’s rulers to follow the example of Muḥammad ʿAlī, the pasha of Egypt, and increase their power along European lines. Of the four powers…

…Portuguese Dutch and English and French. The Spanish and Portuguese period began with the voyages in the early 1520s of Ferdinand Magellan and, after his death, his crew members. Later discoveries included the Solomon Islands, the Marquesas, and possibly New Guinea, all by the Spaniard Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira…

The French government was the first to intervene, after two Roman Catholic missionaries were expelled from Tahiti in 1836. In the same year, two more were deported from Hawaii. In 1839 the archbishop of Chalcedon suggested regular association between the Roman Catholic missions and the French…

It was claimed for France in 1603 by Samuel de Champlain, the first governor of French Canada (who called it Île Saint-Jean), but it was not colonized until 1720, when 300 settlers from France established Port la Joie at the entrance to the harbour of Charlottetown. In addition, fishers…

…prelude to annexation, particularly by France. This use was also developed during the 19th century as a means of colonial expansion or as a means of maintaining the balance of power. Thus, by the Treaty of Paris (1815) the Ionian Islands became a protectorate of Great Britain in order to…

… and Gorée were returned to France in 1816. When attempts to grow cotton near Saint-Louis proved unprofitable, trade for gum in the Sénégal valley was substituted. In 1848 the marginal colonial economy was further disrupted when the Second Republic outlawed slavery on French soil.

…a route of advance for French colonial influence. French ships entered the estuary at least as early as 1558. From a French fort established in 1638, reconnaissance parties went 160 miles upriver to Podor. In 1659 a larger fort was erected on N’Dar Island in the estuary and named Saint-Louis-du-Sénégal…

…and was formally annexed to France in 1756. The archipelago was named Séchelles, later changed by the British to Seychelles. War between France and Britain led to the surrender of the archipelago to the British in 1810, and it was formally ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris…

…Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I’s French Empire, along with Dalmatia, Trieste, and parts of Croatia. French occupation had a profound impact on the politics and culture of the area. The French encouraged local initiative and favoured the use of Slovene as an official language. Many of the changes did not…

…in the late 19th century, France already possessed (from 1862) a coaling station at Obock near the mouth of the Red Sea, other areas of the north coast were occupied by Egypt, and southern Somaliland recognized the overlordship of the sultan of Zanzibar. By the end of the 1880s, France…

…Council, governmental body established by France in April 1663 for administering New France, its colony centred in what is now the St. Lawrence Valley of Canada.

Timbuktu was captured by the French in 1894. They partly restored the city from the desolate condition in which they found it, but no connecting railway or hard-surfaced road was built. In 1960 it became part of the newly independent Republic of Mali.

…World War I, British and French colonial troops from the Gold Coast and Dahomey invaded Togoland and on August 26 secured the unconditional surrender of the Germans. Thereafter the western part of the colony was administered by Britain, the eastern part by France. By an Anglo-French agreement of July 10,…

…after World War II, the French had an obligation to move Togo toward self-government. A local flag was adopted in 1956, shortly before the country was made an autonomous republic within the French Union. The flag’s green background stood for agriculture, hope, and youth the French Tricolor in the upper…

The French exploited the situation by constructing forts within Tukulor territory and signing treaties of friendship with Tukulor’s neighbours. After 1890, French troops swept the empire, conquering Segu, Macina, and Timbuktu in turn. Aḥmadu succumbed to the French in 1893, and his former empire was soon…

Relations with France began in the 18th century, when French traders and missionaries settled in the area. In 1859 the town was captured by the French, and in 1862 it was ceded to France by the Vietnamese emperor Tu Duc. As the capital of Cochinchina, Saigon was…

France resorted to arms after 1843 and, by the treaty of 1862 signed at Saigon (present-day Ho Chi Minh City), received three eastern provinces of Cochinchina, besides other privileges concerning trade and religion. In time, French attentions were focused on the Tonkin delta region into…

For decades the French had tried without success to retain some influence in the area. Only at the end of the 18th century was a missionary named Pigneau de Béhaine able to restore a French presence by assisting Nguyen Anh in wresting control of Dai Viet from the…

…Geneva Accords) were signed by French and Viet Minh representatives and provided for a cease-fire and temporary division of the country into two military zones at latitude 17 °N (popularly called the 17th parallel). All Viet Minh forces were to withdraw north of that line, and all French and Associated…

France occupied the rest of Saint Kitts, took control of Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1635, and in 1697 formally annexed Saint-Domingue (Haiti), the western third of Hispaniola, which for about half a century had been occupied by buccaneers and French settlers. Curaçao, Aruba, and

French and British competition soon became of major importance. Both countries were resentful of the growing economic power of the Netherlands that was based on foreign trade, and both possessed colonies in the Americas. Their governments decided that their colonists should not be dependent on…

Conflicts

World War II

France’s 800,000-man standing army was thought at the time to be the most powerful in Europe. But the French had not progressed beyond the defensive mentality inherited from World War I, and they relied primarily on their Maginot Line for protection against a German…

The British and French parliaments, confident that their governments had turned every stone in search of peace, declared war on Germany on September 3.

…to de Gaulle and General Jacques-Philippe Leclerc.

Great Britain and France declared war on Germany on September 3, at 11:00 am and at 5:00 pm , respectively. World War II had begun.

…was abolished and a new French state created, under the supreme authority of Pétain himself. The few French colonies that rallied to General de Gaulle’s Free French movement were strategically unimportant.

…of the Low Countries and France. In just over six weeks, German armed forces overran Belgium and the Netherlands, drove the British Expeditionary Force from the Continent, captured Paris, and forced the surrender of the French government.

…other Allied troops from the French seaport of Dunkirk (Dunkerque) to England. Naval vessels and hundreds of civilian boats were used in the evacuation, which began on May 26. When it ended on June 4, about 198,000 British and 140,000 French and Belgian troops had been saved.

…by discreetly eliciting support from French officers whom he felt were likely to sympathize with the project. He relied particularly on Gen. Charles Mast, commander of the troops in the Algiers sector, and on Gen. Antoine Émile Béthouart, commander of the Casablanca sector. Mast (whose involvement had been secured as…

…alliance that had pledged Britain, France, and Italy to jointly oppose German rearmament and expansion. In fact, just the opposite happened: fascist Italy turned its back to the democratic West and took to the road of alliance with Nazi Germany. On October 25, 1936, the Rome-Berlin Axis was proclaimed, but…

…candidate for leadership of the French in North Africa. Giraud had been captured by the Germans in May 1940, but the 63-year-old officer had staged a daring escape from imprisonment at Königstein Fortress in April 1942. Giraud then made his way to southern France, and just days before the Allied…

…in France, but it left French commanders in North Africa confused. Hitler resolved that uncertainty the following day, when he set aside the Franco-German Armistice of 1940 and ordered his forces into the hitherto unoccupied part of France. Southern France was speedily overrun by German mechanized units, with six Italian…

…it was announced that the French leaders had agreed to choose Giraud to succeed Darlan as high commissioner.

…resistance movement in northern (occupied) France, although both there and in southern France (ruled by the puppet Vichy regime) other resistance groups were formed by former army officers, socialists, labour leaders, intellectuals, and others. In 1943 the clandestine National Council of the Resistance (Conseil National de la Résistance) was established…

By early June 1940 Denmark, Norway, Belgium, and the Netherlands had fallen, the British had been driven into the sea, and the Germans had taken more than one million Allied prisoners in the space…

…for the Austrian succession itself, France unsuccessfully supported the dubious claims of Bavaria, Saxony, and Spain to parts of the Habsburg domain and supported the claim of Charles Albert, elector of Bavaria, to the imperial crown, all with the overall aim of crippling or destroying Austria, France’s long-standing continental enemy.

…the Hundred Years’ War between France and England.

…of what was left of French power in Germany and Poland. The battle was fought at Leipzig, in Saxony, between approximately 185,000 French and other troops under Napoleon, and approximately 320,000 allied troops, including Austrian, Prussian, Russian, and Swedish forces, commanded respectively by Prince Karl Philipp Schwarzenberg, General Gebhard Leberecht…

…the Hundred Years’ War between France and England. Many of the French nobility were killed, and King Jean was left a prisoner of the English.

…Napoleon III to establish a French satellite state in Mexico. The battle, which ended in a Mexican victory, is celebrated in the national calendar of Mexican holidays as Cinco de Mayo (5th of May).

After France declared war on Spain and the Hapsburg Empire in 1635, a new theater opened in the Thirty Years’ War around Flanders. At Rocroi, the young Duke of Enghien, later Prince of Condé, won his first victory, defeating the Spanish tercios formations that had long…

…1870), decisive defeat of the French army in the Franco-German War, causing the surrender of Napoleon III and the fall of the Bonaparte dynasty and the Second French Empire it was fought at the French border fortress of Sedan on the Meuse River, between 120,000 French troops under Marshal Mac-Mahon

…of 1648–59, a victory of French and British forces led by Henri de La Tour d’Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, over Spanish forces near Dunkirk (then just north of the French frontier in the Spanish Netherlands). The victory led to the surrender of Dunkirk by

…at Naples to support the French campaign in southern Italy. On October 19–20 his fleet slipped out of Cádiz, hoping to get into the Mediterranean Sea without giving battle. Nelson caught him off Cape Trafalgar on October 21.

French losses were insignificant.

…I engagement in which the French repulsed a major German offensive. It was one of the longest, bloodiest, and most-ferocious battles of the war French casualties amounted to about 400,000, German ones to about 350,000. Some 300,000 were killed.

…Austria’s 1809 war against the French control of Germany. The battle was fought on the Marchfeld (a plain northeast of Vienna) between 154,000 French and other troops under Napoleon and 158,000 Austrians under Archduke Charles. After a defeat at Aspern-Essling in May, Napoleon needed a victory to prevent a new…

…century between the British, the French, the Marathas, and Mysore for control of the coastal strip of eastern India from Nellore (north of Madras [now Chennai]) southward (the Tamil country). The name Carnatic properly refers to the region occupied by the Kannada-speaking people, which roughly corresponds to the modern Indian…

…long-standing dispute between England and France until 1953, when the International Court of Justice confirmed British sovereignty. In the late 20th century the dispute revived, as sovereignty of these islands determines allocation of rights to economic development (specifically, petroleum) of the continental shelf.

…the Russians and the British, French, and Ottoman Turkish, with support from January 1855 by the army of Sardinia-Piedmont. The war arose from the conflict of great powers in the Middle East and was more directly caused by Russian demands to exercise protection over the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman…

…in which 50,000 British and French troops (joined by 10,000 Piedmontese troops during 1855), commanded by Lord Raglan and Gen. François Canrobert, besieged and finally captured the main naval base of the Russian Black Sea fleet. Sevastopol’s defenses had been built by the military engineer Colonel Eduard Totleben, and the…

…movement also developed, especially in France, under the leadership of certain bishops but with considerable popular support. Religious leaders proclaimed the Peace of God and the Truce of God, designed to halt or at least limit warfare and assaults during certain days of the week and times of the year…

…of Devolution, (1667–68), conflict between France and Spain over possession of the Spanish Netherlands (present-day Belgium and Luxembourg).

…conquest by Louis XIV of France, whose chief aim in the conflict was to establish French possession of the Spanish Netherlands after having forced the Dutch Republic’s acquiescence. The Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–74) formed part of this general war.

…struggle between the Indians, the French, the British, and the Americans. At the fortifications in Crown Point, the British dislodged the French (August 4, 1759), who in turn were ousted by the Green Mountain Boys (May 11, 1775). Similarly, Fort Ticonderoga was held by the French (1755–59) and the British…

…Africa between Great Britain and France.

…as to purposely offend the French government precipitated the Franco-German War.

…faster by seeking conflict with France. If he could not bring the south into a united German nation by reason, he would rely on the passions aroused by war. Ever the master tactician, he worked behind the scenes to be certain that neither Russia nor Austria would intervene in such…

by Prussia defeated France. The war marked the end of French hegemony in continental Europe and resulted in the creation of a unified Germany.

…the military collapse of Metropolitan France in the summer of 1940. Led by General Charles de Gaulle, the Free French were eventually able to unify most French resistance forces in their struggle against Germany.

Although Britain and France had technically been at peace since 1748, both powers continued to harass each other in their colonial settlements in North America, the West Indies, and India. When the French attacked the British colony of Minorca in May 1756, war broke out Britain allied itself…

…given to the hostilities between France and one or more European powers between 1792 and 1799. It thus comprises the first seven years of the period of warfare that was continued through the Napoleonic Wars until Napoleon’s abdication in 1814, with a year of interruption under the peace of Amiens…

Revolution exploded in France in the summer of 1789, after many decades of ideological ferment, political decline, and social unrest. Ideologically, thinkers of the Enlightenment urged that governments should promote the greatest good of all people, not the narrow interests of a particular elite. They were hostile to…

…of Milan), the Austrian Habsburgs, France, and Venice all sought paramount influence. Opposing the Spaniards, he narrowly escaped the bloodbath of July 19–23, 1620, in which over 300 Protestants perished. He left the priesthood, murdered (Feb. 25, 1621) the head of the Spanish party, Pompeius Planta, and had to flee…

between England and France in the 14th–15th century over a series of disputes, including the question of the legitimate succession to the French crown. The struggle involved several generations of English and French claimants to the crown and actually occupied a period of more than 100 years. By…

The French at first promised to recognize the new government as a free state but failed to do so. On November 23, 1946, at least 6,000 Vietnamese civilians were killed in a French naval bombardment of the port city of Haiphong, and the first Indochina War…

…guerrillas in Malaya, but the French waged a protracted and ultimately unsuccessful war with the Communist Viet Minh in Indochina, while the Dutch failed to subdue nationalists in Indonesia and granted independence in 1949. The United States transferred power peacefully in the Philippines in 1946.

…war raged in Korea, the French were battling the nationalist and Communist Viet Minh in Indochina. When a French army became surrounded at Dien Bien Phu in 1954, Paris appealed to the United States for air support. American leaders viewed the insurgency as part of the worldwide Communist campaign and…

Because the rulers of both France and Spain had dynastic claims in Italy, it was predictable that after the Hundred Years’ War in France in 1453 and the conquest of Granada by Spain in 1492 both powers would make Italy the battlefield of their conflicting ambitions. In the event, it…

Fought largely by France and Spain but involving much of Europe, they resulted in the Spanish Habsburgs dominating Italy and shifted power from Italy to northwestern Europe. The wars began with the invasion of Italy by the French king Charles VIII in 1494. He took Naples, but an…

…the newly unified monarchies of France and Spain, such foreign intervention echoed the policies of their medieval Angevin and Aragonese forebears.

…the League of Augsburg against France under Louis XIV. Canadian and New England colonists divided in support of their mother countries and, together with their respective Indian allies, assumed primary responsibility for their own defense. The British, led by Sir William Phips, captured Port Royal, Acadia (later Nova Scotia), but…

…career came in 1911, when France occupied the Moroccan cities of Rabat and Fès. While Kiderlen was not opposed in principle to French supremacy in Morocco, he demanded compensation for Germany. He encouraged German agitation for intervention in western Morocco and, to lend force to his arguments, dispatched the German…

…two international crises centring on France’s attempts to control Morocco and on Germany’s concurrent attempts to stem French power.

…minor conflict between Mexico and France, arising from the claim of a French pastry cook living in Tacubaya, near Mexico City, that some Mexican army officers had damaged his restaurant. A number of foreign powers had pressed the Mexican government without success to pay for losses that some of their…

The French army that conquered Portugal, however, also occupied parts of northern Spain and Napoleon, whose intentions were now becoming clear, claimed all of Portugal and certain provinces of northern Spain. Unable to organize government resistance, the Spanish minister Godoy persuaded his king, Charles IV, to…

France, then at war with England, interpreted the treaty as a violation of its own commercial treaty of 1778 with the U.S. This resentment led to French maritime attacks on the U.S. and between 1798 and 1800 to an undeclared naval war. Finally, the commissions…

The movement started in France, prompted by Charles X’s publication on July 26 of four ordinances dissolving the Chamber of Deputies, suspending freedom of the press, modifying the electoral laws so that three-fourths of the electorate lost their votes, and calling for new elections to the Chamber in September.…

The revolution was successful in France alone the Second Republic and universal manhood suffrage were established, but the quarrel between the supporters of the république démocratique and the partisans of république démocratique et sociale culminated in a workers’ insurrection in June 1848.

…the early 1840s, Louis-Philippe of France rejected further change and thereby spurred new liberal agitation. Artisan concerns also had quickened, against their loss of status and shifts in work conditions following from rapid economic change a major recession in 1846–47 added to popular unrest. Some socialist ideas spread among artisan…

…War (1921–26) against Spanish and French rule in North Africa and founder of the short-lived Republic of the Rif (1923–26). A skilled tactician and a capable organizer, he led a liberation movement that made him the hero of the Maghrib (northwest Africa).

…across the frontier into the French protectorate to safeguard his supply lines and important sources of foodstuffs. In that instance, his Riffian fighters were as successful against the French as they had been against the Spanish, overrunning dozens of frontline positions, exacting some 6,200 French casualties, and endangering the important…

…secure help from Britain and France, the exhausted Finns made peace (the Treaty of Moscow) on Soviet terms on March 12, 1940, agreeing to the cession of western Karelia and to the construction of a Soviet naval base on the Hanko Peninsula.

Generally, France, Austria, Saxony, Sweden, and Russia were aligned on one side against Prussia, Hanover, and Great Britain on the other. The war arose out of the

…the Hundred Years’ War between France and England.

In August 1936, France joined Britain, the Soviet Union, Germany, and Italy in signing a nonintervention agreement that would be ignored by the Germans, Italians, and Soviets. About 40,000 foreigners fought on the Republican side in the International Brigades largely under the command of the Comintern, and 20,000…

…Anne, married Louis XIII of France, and the younger, Maria Anna, married the future Habsburg emperor Ferdinand III. Two sons of these marriages, Louis XIV and the emperor Leopold I, respectively, married their Spanish cousins Marie-Thérèse and Margarita Teresa, the daughters of Philip IV and

…1949, between Israel, Great Britain, France, and Egypt in 1956, and between Israel, Jordan, and Egypt in 1970. None of these states was at the time declared an aggressor. On the other hand, Japan was found to be an aggressor in Manchuria in 1933, Paraguay in the Chaco area in…

Britain and France feared that Nasser might close the canal and cut off shipments of petroleum flowing from the Persian Gulf to western Europe. When diplomatic efforts to settle the crisis failed, Britain and France secretly prepared military action to regain control of the canal and, if…

…to Nasser, as were the French, who were battling Islāmic nationalists in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.

…Tangier was bombarded by a French fleet as part of French campaigns against the Algerian emir Abdelkader. The Spanish then invaded Morocco in 1860, thus challenging a British policy aimed at preventing any Continental power from securing control of the southern shore of the Strait of Gibraltar. This situation led…

…struggle involved the rivalry of France with the Habsburgs of the empire and with the Habsburgs of Spain, who had been attempting to construct a cordon of anti-French alliances.

The only one available was France. Louis XIII and Richelieu, fresh from their triumph in Italy, had been subsidizing Sweden’s war effort for some time. In 1635, in the wake of Nördlingen, they signed an offensive and defensive alliance with the Dutch Republic (February 8), with Sweden (April 28), and…

…Vietnam, which had defeated the French colonial administration of Vietnam in 1954, to unify the entire country under a single communist regime modeled after those of the Soviet Union and China. The South Vietnamese government, on the other hand, fought to preserve a Vietnam more closely aligned with the West.…

Germany, France, and the Netherlands each achieved a settlement of the religious problem by means of war, and in each case the solution contained original aspects. In Germany the territorial formula of cuius regio, eius religio applied—that is, in each petty state the population had to…

…of Religion, (1562–98) conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenots, which angered the powerful Roman Catholic Guise family. Its partisans massacred a Huguenot

The French and Russian fleets, not to mention the Japanese, outnumbered the Royal Navy’s Asian squadron. The French, Italian, and potential Russian presence in the Mediterranean threatened the British lifeline to India. Soon the Panama Canal would enable the United States to deploy a two-ocean navy.…

Much of northern France, Belgium, and Poland lay in ruin, while millions of tons of Allied shipping rested at the bottom of the sea. The foundation stone of prewar financial life, the gold standard, was shattered, and prewar trade patterns were hopelessly disrupted.

…and an 18-hour ultimatum requiring France to promise neutrality in the event of war between Russia and Germany.

Foch, however, now had a Franco-U.S. force of 28 divisions and 600 tanks in the south ready to strike through Metz into northeastern Lorraine. Since Foch’s general offensive had absorbed the Germans’ reserves, this new offensive would fall on their bared left flank and held the promise of outflanking their…

…left large swaths of northern France, Belgium, and Poland in ruin. The war had cost millions of dead and wounded and more than $236,000,000,000 in direct costs and property losses. Ethnic hatreds and rivalries could not be expunged at a stroke, and their persistence hindered the effort to draw or…

Now Britain and France were promising to fight Hitler over Poland, thereby handing Stalin the choice of joining the Western powers in war or dealing separately with Germany to avoid conflict entirely. Fearing that war might unleash rebellion at home, Stalin chose to become the greatest appeaser of…

International relations

Netherlands

…negotiated an alliance with the French, who feared that the restoration of the prince of Orange would create a hostile Anglo-Dutch coalition. Furthermore, success in the fighting at sea increasingly went to the newly rebuilt Dutch navy. In 1667 the Dutch fleet sailed up the Thames and the Medway to…

…without bloodshed during November as French troops withdrew to their homeland. On November 30, the hereditary stadtholder, at the invitation of van Hogendorp’s provisional authority, returned from England to proclaim his reign as hereditary prince. In 1814 he granted a charter establishing a constitutional monarchy, with restricted powers for a…

…their revolution in 1789 the French recognized red, white, and blue as the “colours of liberty” and honoured the Netherlands for first having used these in a flag (see France, flag of). Pro-French “Patriots” in the Netherlands took the first step regarding an official Dutch national flag when their Batavian…

Syria

The European powers (except France) also objected to Egyptian rule in Syria because it was a threat to the Ottoman Empire, the weakness or disintegration of which might cause a European crisis. In 1839 war broke out between Muḥammad ʿAlī and his suzerain, the sultan. Ibrāhīm defeated the Ottoman…

… nationalist parties that opposed the French mandate and demanded independence, dominating Syrian politics throughout the years of its existence, 1925–49.

United States

…reality only Great Britain and France, both on the Allied side) to purchase munitions on a cash-and-carry basis. With the fall of France to Germany in June 1940, Roosevelt, with heavy public support, threw the resources of the United States behind the British. He ordered the War and Navy departments…

of the United States and France. Standing 305 feet (93 metres) high including its pedestal, it represents a woman holding a torch in her raised right hand and a tablet bearing the adoption date of the Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776) in her left. The torch, which measures 29…

…at Algeciras, Spain, to discuss France’s relationship to the government of Morocco. The conference climaxed the First Moroccan Crisis (see Moroccan crises).

…the first open friction with France, which sent warships to blockade Buenos Aires in 1838. This caused dissension in the coastal region, which depended heavily on export trade. Argentine political exiles in Montevideo, Uruguay, received French backing in their efforts to overthrow Rosas, and in the north a league of…

…policies of Louis XIV of France. They also stayed outside the Triple Alliance of Holland, England, and Sweden that was concluded in order to ward off the attacks of Louis against the Spanish Netherlands. When Louis actually invaded Holland, the emperor finally entered the war, but, in the ensuing Treaties…

…formation of an alliance of France, Bavaria, and Spain, joined later by Saxony and eventually by Prussia itself, to dismember the Habsburg monarchy. Faced by this serious threat, Maria Theresa called together her father’s experienced advisers and asked them what she should do. Most argued that resistance was hopeless and…

…support from Napoleon III of France, Sardinia provoked a woefully unprepared Austria into war and then invited France to come to the Italian kingdom’s assistance. The Austrians suffered two major defeats at Magenta and Solferino and concluded peace. The monarchy gave up Lombardy and kept Venetia, but, more important, it…

, British, French, and Soviet). In September 1945 a conference of representatives of all states extended the authority of the Renner government to all parts of Austria.

…of the Rhine to Revolutionary France in the 1790s, however, and was constrained into an alliance with France in 1796. Baden thus became a satellite of France but was well compensated by its new ally for the possessions it had lost. Between 1803 and 1806, the French compensated Baden by…

…Serbs and Bulgarians, while Britain, France, and Russia intervened for the Greeks. The Romanians benefited from the wars of Italian and German unification, and Albanian independence would have been impossible had the Balkan states not smashed Ottoman power in Europe in the First Balkan War (1912–13).

…that of the Directory in France and was bound to France by alliance. In March 1805 Napoleon changed the system of government once more: the Batavian Republic was renamed Batavian Commonwealth, and executive power was given to a kind of dictator called the council pensionary. In June 1806, however, the…

…was successively occupied by Revolutionary France (1796), by Austria (1799), and then again by France (1800). In the following year Bavaria became an ally of France and was thus able to expand its territories at the expense of Austria, acquiring by the Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 approximately the boundaries…

Hostilities between France and Spain persisted, marked by further losses of territory on the southern border (Artois in 1640 and parts of Flanders in the later 17th century).

Under French rule there was no autonomy as there had been under the Spanish and Austrian regimes. The administration was centralized, aristocratic privileges abolished, and the church persecuted. Military conscription measures provoked a peasants’ revolt (1798–99), but repression was extremely harsh. Under the…

…States, the United Kingdom, and France) to abandon their post-World War II jurisdictions in West Berlin.

European countries regarded Canada as both on its own and as an economic, if not a military, dependency of the United States, a view revealed by the course of Franco-Canadian relations in the 1960s. France had not taken an active role in Canadian…

…Treaty of Whampoa (Huangpu) with France. These arrangements made up a complex of foreign privileges by virtue of the most-favoured-nation clauses (guaranteeing trading equality) conceded to every signatory. All in all, they provided a basis for later inroads such as the loss of tariff autonomy, extraterritoriality (exemption from the application…

…including the murder of a French missionary in western Guangxi, led in 1857 to an Anglo-French alliance against China in what came to be called the second Opium (or Arrow) War. The brief hostilities were concluded by the humiliating treaties of Tianjin in 1858. Then, following the Sino-French War of…

…fell victim to British and French imperialism. Already established in Vietnam, France regarded Yunnan as within its sphere of influence and built the Hanoi-Kunming railway at the turn of the 20th century to exploit the resources of the province. In 1910 the British, then established in Burma, induced the tusi

Eventually, France recognized the Czechoslovak National Council as the supreme body controlling Czechoslovak national interests the other Allies soon followed the French initiative. On September 28 Beneš signed a treaty whereby France agreed to support the Czechoslovak program in the postwar peace conference. To preclude a…

… and at isolating Germany’s enemy, France.

…military pact that developed between France and Russia from friendly contacts in 1891 to a secret treaty in 1894 it became one of the basic European alignments of the pre-World War I era. Germany, assuming that ideological differences and lack of common interest would keep republican France and tsarist Russia…

The French, who had played so large a part in Muḥammad ʿAlī’s reforms, fell into disfavour, and for diplomatic support ʿAbbās turned to their British rivals, whose help was needed against the Ottomans. Although initially ʿAbbās was ostentatiously loyal to the sultan, he resented an attempt…

Britain and France, major shareholders in the company, were angered by Nasser’s actions (France was equally infuriated by Egyptian aid to the Algerians who were revolting against French rule) and sought to regain control of the canal by an intricate ruse. In collaboration with France and Britain,…

…the major part of southwestern France. Altogether his holdings in France were far larger than those of the French king. They have become known as the Angevin empire, although Henry never in fact claimed any imperial rights or used the title of emperor. From the beginning Henry showed himself determined…

…campaign in the Netherlands and France and an endless guerrilla action in Ireland, where Philip discovered he could do to Elizabeth what she had been doing to him in the Low Countries. Even on the high seas, the days of fabulous victories were over, for the king of Spain soon…

…was now at odds with France, the latter power was willing to sponsor an invasion on behalf of the Stuart dynasty. It hoped that such an invasion would win support from the masses and from the Tory sector of the landed class. Although a handful of Tory conspirators encouraged these…

…over the occupation of Germany, France often sided with the U.S.S.R. in order to keep Germany weak and obtain reparations. The Berlin crisis of 1948, however, convinced the French that a way must be found to reconcile German recovery with their own security. The architects of an integrationist solution were…

…and other southern domains to France, and Flanders was fatally weakened by the departure of his successor, Baldwin IX, to become Latin emperor of Constantinople (as Baldwin I) in 1205. The French king Philip II Augustus seized the chance to influence the succession in Flanders, and when the Flemings resisted…

…after the death of Lorenzo, French armies under King Charles VIII invaded Italy. They were backed against the Medici by the popular party in Florence, which (with French help) succeeded in exiling the Medici and declaring Florence a republic. The consequence, however, was the loss of political autonomy to the…

…the French and Indian War, France welcomed the opportunity to undermine Britain’s position in the New World.

…capitulation was the entrance of France into the war. The French had secretly furnished financial and material aid since 1776. Now they prepared fleets and armies, although they did not formally declare war until June 1778.

…Jacobins, Geneva was annexed to France. The city was reduced to a subservient role and submitted in 1802 to the protection of Napoleon I. The emperor distrusted Geneva, “that city where they know English too well” (it was indeed harbouring a secret liberal and Anglophile opposition), and the French period…

” French President Mitterrand warned the Germans against pushing it too hard, while British Prime Minister Thatcher was openly skeptical. Gorbachev was expected to demand large concessions in return for his approval. Bush presumably had reassured him at Malta that events would not be allowed to…

The Carolingian kings of France, as well as the great feudatories who sought to dominate if not to ruin them, became, in turn, petitioners to the German court during the reign of the Ottos. The kings of Burgundy—whose suzerainty lay over the valleys of the Saône and the Rhône,…

…alliance was therefore forged by France (where Cardinal Richelieu took charge of affairs in 1624), England (whose ruler, James I, was father-in-law to the deposed Frederick V), the Netherlands, and Denmark (whose Protestant king, Christian IV, had extensive territorial interests in northern Germany, now threatened by Catholic armies). In 1625…

the Americans, British, French, and Soviets divided Germany into four zones. The American, British, and French zones together made up the western two-thirds of Germany, while the Soviet zone comprised the eastern third. Berlin, the former capital, which was surrounded by the Soviet zone, was placed under joint…

…by the forces of revolutionary France and with Napoléon Bonaparte’s invasion of Egypt in 1798. These developments caused panic in Constantinople, for they seemed to indicate that the seditious and atheistic doctrines of the French Revolution had penetrated the borders of the empire. The brief period of French rule in…

…court became a centre of French knightly culture. Western dress and translations of French tales of chivalry appeared. A royal notary, known to future generations as “Anonymous,” wrote the history of the conquest of Hungary. The first known work in the Hungarian language, the Halotti beszéd (“Funeral Oration”), was part…

…seek armed aid from Revolutionary France to help overthrow English rule. After an initial effort failed, Tone went to the United States and obtained letters of introduction from the French minister at Philadelphia to the Committee of Public Safety in Paris. In February 1796 Tone arrived in the French capital,…

…dynasty West Francia (roughly, modern France), East Francia (roughly, modern Germany), and Italy were the major new kingdoms that emerged. Lothar’s son Louis II (844–875) was king-emperor only in Italy. Louis II, whose reign was in many ways the high point of the Carolingian kingdom in the peninsula, was an…

When French troops invaded Italy in the spring of 1796, they found fertile ground for the revolutionary ideas and practices of their native country. Since the 1780s, Italian newspapers and pamphlets had given full play to news from France, especially to the…

…on Rome merely brought back French troops, who defeated Garibaldi at Mentana on November 3. Arrested once again, he was sentenced to house arrest on the remote island of Caprera, between Sardinia and Corsica, where he owned some property. Italy suffered a marked loss of prestige politically and militarily, and…

Meanwhile, France, Russia, and Germany were not willing to endorse Japanese gains and forced the return of the Liaotung Peninsula to China. Insult was added to injury when Russia leased the same territory with its important naval base, Port Arthur (now Lü-shun), from China in 1898.…

…Britain, the United States, and France, that replaced the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, and a Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty (with Italy) that set limits for battleships at a ratio of five for Great Britain and the United States to three for Japan. An agreement on the fortification of Pacific island bases was…

…a joint protectorate with Vichy France over the whole colony. This opened the way for further moves into Southeast Asia.

and Tuscany, and British and French observers, the congress proclaimed its hostility to revolutionary regimes, agreed to abolish the Neapolitan constitution, and authorized the Austrian army to restore the absolutist monarchy. The British and French protested the decision, thereby encouraging unsuccessful resistance among the Neapolitans. A similar revolt in Piedmont…

In that year France, which administered Lebanon as a League of Nations mandate, established the state of Greater Lebanon. Lebanon then became a republic in 1926 and achieved independence in 1943.

French political influence was great, particularly among the Maronites, whose integration into the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical structure was formally codified in 1736.

…representatives of the United States, France, Italy, and Japan. At the end of three months of meetings, general agreement had been secured on the regulation of submarine warfare and a five-year moratorium on the construction of capital ships. The limitation of aircraft carriers, provided for by the Washington Five-Power Treaty…

French domination of the area dates from the 17th century, when control of the duchy became vital in the struggles between the French kings and the Habsburgs, who ruled the Holy Roman Empire. The French had already established a foothold by taking Metz, Toul, and…

…the increasing influence of the French and English kings, particularly after 1200 this applied especially to French power in Flanders. A struggle for the throne that broke out in Germany at the death of Henry VI (1197) found the two powerful factions—the Ghibellines and Guelfs—on opposite sides in the Low…

…of Burgundy (princes of the French royal house of Valois) began to penetrate these territorial principalities in the Low Countries, whose feelings of territoriality made them regard the dukes of Burgundy with suspicion. The marriage in 1369 of Philip II the Bold of Burgundy to the heiress of the count…

…time, but in 1635, when France became involved, a period of disaster began in Luxembourg, which was wracked by war, famine, and epidemics. Moreover, the war did not end for Luxembourg with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 but only with the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. In 1679…

Some countries, including France and the United Kingdom, sought the establishment of a no-fly zone over Libya to protect rebels and civilians from air attacks, while others, including the United States and Germany, expressed reservations, emphasizing the need for broad international consensus and warning against possible unforeseen consequences…

Exiled Mexican conservatives, who continued to intrigue, enlisted the help of a powerful ally, the French ruler Napoleon III, who wanted to create a Latin league that would include the Mediterranean lands and the former possessions of Spain and Portugal in the New…

The Grimaldis allied themselves with France except for the period from 1524 to 1641, when they were under the protection of Spain. In 1793 they were dispossessed by the French Revolutionary regime, and Monaco was annexed to France. With the fall of Napoleon I, however, the Grimaldis returned the Congress…

…seek commercial relations with the French, who were then advancing toward his kingdom from their base in Southeast Asia. Thibaw sent envoys to Paris, and in January 1885 the French signed a treaty of trade with the kingdom of Ava and dispatched a French consul to Mandalay. That envoy hoped…

Narai’s flirtations with the French were encouraged by the Greek adventurer Constantine Phaulkon, who became his chief minister and adviser. Thai diplomatic missions were sent to King Louis XIV of France in 1680, 1684, and 1686 and, encouraged by Phaulkon to hope for territorial concessions and even Narai’s conversion…

…in 1934 to counteract mounting French domination of Morocco and to secure recognition of the equality of Moroccans and Frenchmen under the French protectorate.

…names Neustria and Francia (France) interchangeably, implying that Neustria formed the heart and core of the Frankish lands. Later, the name Neustria came to denote a much smaller area, and, by the 11th and 12th centuries, it was sometimes used synonymously with Normandy.

Süleyman’s main European ally was France, which sought to use Ottoman pressure in the south to lessen the pressure of the Habsburgs on its eastern frontiers. The land war with the Habsburgs was centred in Hungary and was fought in three main stages. From 1520 to 1526 the independent Hungarian…

…accompanying tripartite agreement between Britain, France, and Italy defined extensive spheres of influence for the latter two powers. The treaty was ratified only by Greece and was abrogated by the Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) as the result of a determined struggle for independence waged under the leadership of…

…by May 1916 Great Britain, France, and Russia had reached an agreement (the Sykes-Picot Agreement) according to which, inter alia, the bulk of Palestine was to be internationalized. Further complicating the situation, in November 1917 Arthur Balfour, the British secretary of state for foreign affairs, addressed a letter to

…appealed for aid to the Frankish ruler Pippin III (the Short), who “restored” the lands of central Italy to the Roman see, ignoring the claim of the Byzantine Empire to sovereignty there. This Donation of Pippin (756) provided the basis for the papal claim to temporal power. In the same…

…a preliminary meeting of the French, British, U.S., and Italian heads of government and foreign ministers—respectively, Georges Clemenceau and Stephen Pichon Lloyd George and Arthur James Balfour Woodrow Wilson (who fell ill at the conference, probably having contracted the flu as the influenza

…it was formally annexed to France as the département of Taro.

…the 65-year (1494–1559) struggle between France and Spain for the control of Italy, leaving Habsburg Spain the dominant power there for the next 150 years. In the last phase of the war, fought mostly outside of Italy, France was beaten at the battles of Saint-Quentin (1557) and Gravelines (1558). These…

Émigrés looked to Revolutionary France for assistance, and General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski succeeded in 1797 in persuading Napoleon Bonaparte, then waging his Italian campaign, to create auxiliary Polish legions. In their headquarters the future Polish national anthem—“Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła” (“Poland Has Not Yet Perished”)—was sung for the first

…the utmost by war with France and revolt in Catalonia. The French minister, Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu, already had agents in Lisbon, and a leader was found in John, duke of Bragança, a grandson of the duchess Catherine (niece of John III) whose claims had been…

France ran a massive empire, but its nationalistic yearnings were not fully satisfied and the humiliating loss of Alsace-Lorraine had not been avenged. Russia encountered a new opponent in the Far East in the rise of Japan. The Japanese, fearful of Russian expansion in northern…

…Second Reform Act (1867), the French Third Republic (1875), the triumph of nationalism in Italy and Germany (1871), the establishment of universal manhood suffrage in Germany (1867), equality for the Hungarians in the Habsburg monarchy (1867), emancipation of the serfs in

…was German help in reducing Franco-Russian pressure on the British Empire and defending the balance of power. What Germany sought was British neutrality or cooperation while Germany expanded its own power in the world. Bülow still believed in Holstein’s “free hand” policy of playing the other powers off against each…

…Dutch Republic (United Provinces), and France to prevent Spain from altering the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht (1713). Philip V of Spain, influenced by his wife, Elizabeth Farnese of Parma, and her adviser Giulio Alberoni, seized control of Sardinia and Sicily (assigned to Austria and

…Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen, 1818) France was admitted to full participation in the proceedings, creating in effect the Quintuple Alliance.

…April 22, 1834, between Britain, France, and the more liberal claimants to the thrones of Spain and Portugal against the conservative claimants to those thrones. The alliance successfully supported Maria Cristiana, who was acting as regent for Isabella II in Spain and had allied herself with the liberals against the…

…Allied invasions of Italy and France and was attended by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Differences between U.S. and British strategists about the coordination of the Italian campaign with Operation Overlord (the planned

…from reforms introduced by the French when they dominated Italy during the period of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars (1796–1815). A number of Italian states were briefly consolidated, first as republics and then as satellite states of the French empire, and, even more importantly, the Italian middle class grew…

But they saw in France and Britain the chief guarantors of the postwar international order.

…quickly made peace with both France and Britain and restored normal relations with Austria. His hope that he would then be able to concentrate on internal reform was frustrated by the reopening of war with Napoleon in 1805. Defeated at Austerlitz in December 1805, the Russian armies fought Napoleon in…

…army could have crushed either France or Russia alone but not both together. The Russian invasion of East Prussia in August 1914 was a failure: in two unsuccessful battles nearly 150,000 Russians were taken prisoner. The invasion did, however, cause the Germans to withdraw troops from their western front and…

…of a report commissioned by French judge Jean-Louis Bruguière, including allegations that Kagame and other FPR leaders ordered the rocket attack that caused the 1994 plane crash that killed Habyarimana and triggered the genocide (echoing the claims of some Rwandan dissidents) Kagame vehemently denied the allegations. Rwanda severed relations with…

Rwanda severed relations with France in 2006 when Bruguière—claiming jurisdiction because the flight crew members who perished in the crash were French—signed international arrest warrants for several of Kagame’s close associates for their alleged roles in the crash and requested that Kagame stand trial at the ICTR. (Relations between…

…people, was much influenced by France in the 150 years following the Peace of Westphalia (1648). Saar became a French province in 1684 under the Truce of Regensburg, but in 1697 France was forced to surrender all of Saar except the town of Saarlouis under the Treaty of Rijswijk. From…

…secret conference held at Plombières, France, in July 1858 he arranged with Emperor Napoleon III for French military intervention in the event of Austrian aggression against Piedmont. Cavour’s goal was the complete expulsion of Austrian troops from the peninsula. In return for this help Piedmont had to cede Savoy and…

…Julius II, and in 1512 France and Scotland renewed their “auld alliance” as a counterbalance. In 1513 Henry VIII invaded France. James IV consequently invaded England, where he died along with thousands of his army in the rashly fought and calamitous Battle of Flodden.

between Great Britain, Italy, and France. On the African continent itself Egypt also was involved, and later Ethiopia, expanding and consolidating its realm under the guiding leadership of the emperors Tewodros II, Yohannes IV, and Menilek II. Britain’s interest in the northern Somali coast followed the establishment in 1839 of…

When in June 1977 France granted independence to Djibouti (under a Somali president), the WSLF, backed by Somalia, immediately launched a series of fierce attacks on Ethiopian garrisons. By September 1977 Somalia had largely conquered the Ogaden region, and the war was at the gates of Hārer. Then the…

…by the governments of Australia, France, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and the United States to advise them on economic, social, and health matters affecting the South Pacific island territories they administered. It is the oldest regional organization in the Pacific and is headquartered in Nouméa, New Caledonia. Guam…

…the First Coalition against Revolutionary France led to a French invasion in 1794. In July 1795 the conflict with France was ended by the Peace of Basle, which was followed the next year by the Treaty of San Ildefonso, an alliance between Spain and France against England. When Napoleon again…

…son of King Louis-Philippe of France. The marriages revived dynastic ties between Spain and France but caused the breakdown of friendly relations between England and France.

…then to the kingdom of France. Thus, for several centuries Catalans looked to the north.

…time, Gustav Adolf negotiated with France for its support against the German emperor, whose armies threatened the south shores of the Baltic. In 1630 Gustav Adolf with his Swedish army landed in northern Germany, joining in the Thirty Years’ War. In 1631 Sweden concluded its treaty

…between the Holy Roman emperor, France, Spain, and the Italian powers over control of the duchy of Milan. The Swiss had more than a passing interest in this area, having followed Uri and extended their control into the southern Alpine valleys while fighting against the Milanese during the 15th century.…

Although both pro- and anti-French feelings existed, Switzerland attempted to remain neutral during the French revolutionary wars. The country’s strategic position on the main Paris-Milan route via the Simplon Pass was vital for France, however, as was control of the Great Saint Bernard Pass. Thus, after Napoleon’s armies had…

In 1893, after French gunboats forced their way up the Chao Phraya River to Bangkok, he was forced to cede to France all Lao territories east of the Mekong River, and in 1907 the French took over three territories in northwestern Cambodia and Lao territory west of the…

…it had apprised Britain and France at Stresa of its intentions of doing so. British public opinion was torn between a desire to avoid war and an unwillingness to sanction unprovoked aggression. The compromise was a retreat to the fiction of “collective security,” which meant a dependence upon action by…

France held out for just 38 days. (Listen to an excerpt of Churchill’s first address to the House of Commons as prime minister, on May 13, 1940.) When on June 18 the French government resolved to ask for an armistice, Churchill announced on the radio…

…known collectively as the P-5)—China, France, the Soviet Union (whose seat and membership were assumed by Russia in 1991), the United Kingdom, and the United States—concur on the admission of new members at times posed serious obstacles. By 1950 only 9 of 31 applicants had been admitted to the organization.…

…system, ongoing economic aid from France for the maintenance of the Francophone school system has ensured that about half of ni-Vanuatu children receive French-language instruction. Education is free and compulsory for ages 6 to 12, but only about one-third of ni-Vanuatu children undertake postprimary education. The country’s school attendance and…

…subsequent treaties of peace with France, signed on May 30 not only by the “four” but also by Sweden and Portugal and on July 20 by Spain, stipulated that all former belligerents should send plenipotentiaries to a congress in Vienna. Nevertheless, the “four” still intended to reserve the real decision…

Medieval society

…extent of allodial land in France was increased by the anarchy that accompanied the decline of the Carolingian monarchy much of this new property, however, was eventually brought into a feudal relationship in which the holder owed certain services to his lord. By the 12th and 13th centuries, the only…

Erasmus’s associates in France included the influential humanists Robert Gaguin, Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples, and Guillaume Budé (Guglielmus Budaeus). Of these three, Budé was most central to the development of French humanism, not only in his historical and philological studies but also in his use of his national influence…

By the end of the 11th century, the universal tendency of feudalism to associate status with the possession of land caused the French viscounts to qualify their title with the name of their own most important fief. In Aquitaine, of which the counts of…

Role of

…Canterbury, Robert Winchelsey, but in France there was no strong defender of papal prerogative against the concerted action of the king and his civil lawyers. His bull Unam sanctam (1302) proclaimed the primacy of the pope and insisted on the submission of the temporal to the spiritual power.

It provided reigning kings of France from 1589 to 1792 and from 1814 to 1830, after which another Bourbon reigned as king of the French until 1848 kings or queens of Spain from 1700 to 1808, from 1814 to 1868, from 1874 to 1931, and since 1975 dukes of Parma…

France from 987 to 1328, during the feudal period of the Middle Ages. By extending and consolidating their power, the Capetian kings laid the foundation of the French nation-state.

…the outbreak of war with France, Charles hurried back to Spain, where his followers had meanwhile gained the upper hand over the comuneros. Even though he granted an amnesty, the young monarch proved to be an intransigent ruler, bloodily suppressing the revolt and signing 270 death warrants. Those actions were…

…the Moroccan port to which France had claims, convinced Churchill that in any major Franco-German conflict Britain would have to be at France’s side. When transferred to the Admiralty in October 1911, he went to work with a conviction of the need to bring the navy to a pitch of…

…and social history of the French Third Republic.

During the 1890s, France faced a major constitutional crisis in the Dreyfus affair. The imprisonment of Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish army officer falsely accused of treason, triggered a battle between conservative, Catholic, and military forces, all bent on defending the authority of army and state, and a more…

…endless wars with Scotland and France bankrupted him. He quarrelled bitterly with both clergy and barons, behaving as a rash and obstinate autocrat who refused to recognize his limitations. Philip III and Philip IV of France had both cheated him of the contingent benefits promised by the Treaty of Paris…

…a state of hostility with France, for which the most obvious reason was the dispute over English rule in Gascony. Contributory causes were France’s new king Philip VI’s support of the Scots, Edward’s alliance with the Flemish cities—then on bad terms with their French overlord—and the revival in 1337 of…

Eleanor became queen of France, a title she held for the next 15 years. Beautiful, capricious, and adored by Louis, Eleanor exerted considerable influence over him, often goading him into undertaking perilous ventures.

…aid and diplomatic recognition from France. He played on the French aristocracy’s liberal sympathies for the oppressed Americans and extracted not only diplomatic recognition of the new republic but also loan after loan from an increasingly impoverished French government. His image as the democratic folk genius from the wilderness of…

More important was Frederick Henry’s French policy, culminating (1635) in the so-called treaty of partition between the two countries and stipulating a partitioning of the southern Netherlands, if conquered by arms from the Spanish. The treaty further provided for the yearly payment of a considerable French subsidy, thus enabling the…

…by a hostile coalition of France, Spain, and Bavaria, had to agree to the Convention of Klein-Schnellendorf, by which Frederick was allowed to occupy the whole of Lower Silesia. However, the Habsburg successes against the French and Bavarians that followed so alarmed Frederick that early in 1742 he invaded Moravia,…

…than once to cede to France territory in western Germany in the hope of breaking up the coalition that threatened him. Moreover, by his part in the first partition of Poland he helped to create an important common interest with Russia: thenceforth both states had as one of their major…

French intervention, however, forced Frederick William once again to give up his Pomeranian conquests. Ratified in the Treaty of Oliva in 1660, this renunciation was balanced by confirmation of the Elector’s full sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia.

…by a similar coup (France frustrated his proxy marriage to the Breton heiress Anne), he procured Philip’s marriage, in 1496, to Joan, prospective heiress of Castile and Aragon: thus securing for his family not only Spain, with Naples–Sicily and Sardinia, but also the immense dominions the Spaniards were about…

…overlordship of the king of France. By conquest, through diplomacy, and through the marriages of two of his sons, he gained acknowledged possession of what is now the west of France from the northernmost part of Normandy to the Pyrenees, near Carcassonne. During his reign, the dynastic marriages of three…

…holdings) and to parts of France that had never been in English hands. Although such demands were unlikely to be conceded even by the distracted government of France under King Charles VI, Henry seems to have convinced himself that his claims were just and not a merely cynical cover for…

…the duchy of Brittany into France, Henry found himself drawn along with Spain and the Holy Roman emperor into a war against France. But he realized that war was a hazardous activity for one whose crown was both impoverished and insecure, and in 1492 he made peace with France on…

…Ferdinand II of Aragon, against France and ostensibly in support of a threatened pope, to whom the devout king for a long time paid almost slavish respect.

In the west France remained the natural enemy of Germany and must, therefore, be cowed or subdued to make expansion eastward possible.

More significantly, France, now liberated and under the leadership of Charles de Gaulle, did not intend to simply accept the fait accompli of an independent Vietnam and attempted to reassert its control. On October 6 the French general Jacques Leclerc landed in Saigon, followed a few days…

…Charles de Gaulle’s newly liberated France his first thought was that an assignment error must have been made in Rome.

…King Philip II Augustus of France and attempted unsuccessfully to seize control of England. In April 1193 he was forced to accept a truce but made further arrangements with Philip for the division of Richard’s possessions and for rebellion in England. On Richard’s return, early in 1194, John was banished…

…played a major role in French affairs in the early 15th century.

Though Leopold’s policy toward Catholic France was undecided at first, he finally had to agree to a coalition with the Protestant naval powers, Holland and England. In the course of the long struggle with France, the empire scored several military successes but in the…

…Ingelheim [now in Germany]), Carolingian ruler of the Franks who succeeded his father, Charlemagne, as emperor in 814 and whose 26-year reign (the longest of any medieval emperor until Henry IV [1056–1106]) was a central and controversial stage in the Carolingian experiment to fashion a new European society. Commonly called…

…1917, Vincennes, near Paris, France), dancer and courtesan whose name has become a synonym for the seductive female spy. She was shot by the French on charges of spying for Germany during World War I. The nature and extent of her espionage activities remain uncertain, and her guilt is widely…

…along the eastern frontier of France. He successfully defended his new domains against the attacks of Louis XI of France, defeating the French at the Battle of Guinegate in 1479. There Maximilian’s military innovation saved him. French armies consisted primarily of the prized and formidable Swiss Reisläufer, mercenary units that…

…Vincennes, France), first minister of France after Cardinal de Richelieu’s death in 1642. During the early years of King Louis XIV, he completed Richelieu’s work of establishing France’s supremacy among the European powers and crippling the opposition to the power of the monarchy at home.

The French, partly as a result of this antimissionary policy, invaded Vietnam in 1858, initially landing at Tourane (Da Nang), and then establishing a base at Saigon. They forced the emperor Tu Duc (q.v.), then facing revolts elsewhere, to cede the three eastern provinces of southern…

…Otto could not only resist France’s claims to Lorraine (Lotharingia) but also act as mediator in France’s internal troubles. Similarly, he extended his influence into Burgundy. Moreover, when the Burgundian princess Adelaide, the widowed queen of Italy whom the margrave Berengar of Ivrea had taken prisoner, appealed to him for…

…under the surveillance of Britain, France, and Russia. By 1832 he had achieved this objective.

… of Prussia to engage the French on the Continent, while the British Navy harassed the French on their own coasts, in the West Indies, and in Africa. Choosing good generals and admirals, he inspired them with a new spirit of dash and enterprise. His hand, eye, and voice were everywhere.…

…but it was the provocative French decrees of late 1792, which authorized their armies to violate neutral territory and which promised military assistance to any European people wishing to depose its rulers. The French, confident of victory after their successes against the Austro-Prussian forces and believing that England was ripe…

…Pius one lesson, developments in France, where the church prospered more under the liberal regime of Louis-Philippe than it had under the clerical Charles X, suggested quite the opposite conclusions to the liberal Catholics there, whose spokesman was Charles de Montalembert. On the other hand, the coming of the Second…

…to King Louis XIII of France from 1624 to 1642. His major goals were the establishment of royal absolutism in France and the end of Spanish-Habsburg hegemony in Europe.

…became bankers to whom the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars of 1792–1815 came as a piece of great good fortune. Mayer and his eldest son, Amschel, supervised the growing business from Frankfurt, while Nathan established a branch in London in 1804, Jakob settled in Paris in 1811, and Salomon and…

…the victorious Western powers, especially France, for Germany had already renewed ties with Russia through the Treaty of Rapallo in 1922. By meeting the reparation payments, for the reduction of which he fought as stubbornly as he did for removal of French troops from west of the Rhine, he hoped…

When France and Spain went to war in 1793, the Black commanders joined the Spaniards of Santo Domingo, the eastern two-thirds of Hispaniola (now the Dominican Republic). Knighted and recognized as a general, Toussaint demonstrated extraordinary military ability and attracted such renowned warriors as his nephew…

…of the royalist movement in France during the Second Restoration (1815–30). The ultras represented the interests of the large landowners, the aristocracy, clericalists, and former émigrés. They were opposed to the egalitarian and secularizing principles of the Revolution, but they did not aim at restoring the ancien régime rather, they…

…with the assistance of the French, in exchange for a trade treaty, an agreement the French declined because of ʿUmar’s growing strength. ʿUmar realized that faith without force would be ineffective and made careful preparations for his task. In northeastern Guinea, where he first established himself, he wrote down his…

In 1570 Walsingham was appointed ambassador to France. His experiences there would affirm his growing conviction that, with religion now the dominating political fault line in post-Reformation northern Europe, England could no longer trust its long-term security…

…evidently spent much time in France. Because of his prudence, the council appointed him tutor to the young king (June 1428–May 1436). While attending the king in France (1430–32), Warwick was present at the trial and execution of Joan of Arc and scored a notable victory over the French near…

…political change and had made France Germany’s implacable enemy. At 75 years of age, he was unable to solve the social and political problems confronting Germany at the end of the century. William’s action would have been justifiable if he himself had been in possession of a solution. As it…

Treaties

, by Britain, France, Spain, and the Batavian Republic (the Netherlands), achieving a peace in Europe for 14 months during the Napoleonic Wars. It ignored some questions that divided Britain and France, such as the fate of the Belgian provinces, Savoy, and Switzerland and the trade relations between

…pact between the government of France and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey at Ankara, signed by the French diplomat Henri Franklin-Bouillon and Yusuf Kemal Bey, the Turkish nationalist foreign minister. It formalized the de facto recognition by France of the Grand National Assembly, rather than the government of the…

Britain, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Later other nations acceded to the treaty.

Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the

…1797), a peace settlement between France and Austria, signed at Campo Formio (now Campoformido, Italy), a village in Venezia Giulia southwest of Udine, following the defeat of Austria in Napoleon Bonaparte’s first Italian campaign.

Anglo-French agreement that, by settling a number of controversial matters, ended antagonisms between Great Britain and France and paved the way for their diplomatic cooperation against German pressures in the decade preceding World War I (1914–18). The agreement in no sense created an alliance and…

…the People’s Republic of China, France, Laos, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union, the Viet Minh (i.e., the North Vietnamese), and the State of Vietnam (i.e., the South Vietnamese). The 10 documents—none of which were treaties binding the participants—consisted of 3 military agreements, 6 unilateral declarations, and…

by Austria, Great Britain, and France, accepted Russian military aid early in 1833. In return he concluded, at the village of Hünkâr İskelesi, near Istanbul (Constantinople), an eight-year treaty that proclaimed peace and friendship between the two nations and a commitment to reach a mutual agreement on all matters relating…

…common policy in opposition to France. The terms of the anti-French alliance were unacceptable to Henry VII, who ratified it (Sept. 23, 1490) with amendments that were in turn rejected by Spain. The marriage was renegotiated in 1496 on terms similar to those proposed in 1489.

reached by Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy that permitted German annexation of the Sudetenland, in western Czechoslovakia.

…the Dutch War, in which France had opposed Spain and the Dutch Republic (now the Netherlands). France gained advantages by arranging terms with each of its enemies separately.

…series of agreements whereby Germany, France, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy mutually guaranteed peace in western Europe. The treaties were initialed at Locarno, Switz., on October 16 and signed in London on December 1.

…(1733, 1743, and 1761) between France and Spain, so called because both nations were ruled by members of the Bourbon family. The Pactes de Famille generally had the effect of involving Spain in European and colonial wars on the side of the French Bourbons (e.g., the Seven Years’ War, 1756–63).…

…Hanover on one side and France and Spain on the other, with Portugal expressly understood to be included. It was signed in Paris on Feb. 10, 1763.

…side and the United States, France, and Spain on the other. Preliminary articles (often called the Preliminary Treaty of Paris) were signed at Paris between Britain and the United States on November 30, 1782. On September 3, 1783, three definitive treaties were signed—between Britain and the United States in Paris…

…agreement signed by Austria and France at Pressburg (now Bratislava, Slovakia) after Napoleon’s victories at Ulm and Austerlitz it imposed severe terms on Austria. Austria gave up the following: all that it had received of Venetian territory at the Treaty of Campo Formio (see Campo Formio, Treaty of) to Napoleon’s…

…War until 1659 Spain and France engaged in almost continuous warfare. During the struggle Spain found itself also involved in hostilities with England, and the real decay of the Spanish monarchy became rapidly apparent. Any assistance that might have been hoped for from the Holy Roman emperor was prevented by…

…finally in 1658 by the Treaty of the Pyrenees.

…not apply if Germany attacked France or if Russia attacked Austria. Bismarck showed the Russian ambassador the text of the German-Austrian alliance of 1879 to drive home the last point. Germany paid for Russian friendship by agreeing to the Russian sphere of influence in Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia (now part…

…(June 1862), agreement by which France achieved its initial foothold on the Indochinese Peninsula. The treaty was signed by the last precolonial emperor of Vietnam, Tu Duc, and was ratified by him in April 1863.

…the terms of the treaty, France received Fiume, Istria, and Trieste, part of Croatia, and most of Carinthia and Carniola Russia, having backed Napoleon, received the Tarnopol section of East Galicia the Grand Duchy of Warsaw obtained West

Great Britain and France, with the assent of imperial Russia, for the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. The agreement led to the division of Turkish-held Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and

…[June 27], 1807), agreements that France signed with Russia and with Prussia (respectively) at Tilsit, northern Prussia (now Sovetsk, Russia), after Napoleon’s victories over the Prussians at Jena and at Auerstädt and over the Russians at Friedland.

of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France, Woodrow Wilson of the United States, and Vittorio Orlando of Italy. The first three in particular made the important decisions. None of the defeated nations had any say in shaping the treaty, and even the associated Allied powers played only a minor role. The…

Public opinion in France and Britain wished to impose harsh terms, especially on Germany. French military circles sought not only to recover Alsace and Lorraine and to occupy the Saar but also to detach the Rhineland from Germany. Members of the British Parliament lobbied to increase the reparations…

…signed in October 1648, saw France try to sabotage the agreements already made.