|1946 First Meeting of UN General Assembly- (1/10/46) The first meeting of the UN General Assembly took place in London. Trygve Lie, a Norwegian diplomat, was elected the first Secretary General of the UN.|
|1946 Bank of England Nationalized - (2/14/46) The Bank of England was nationalized by the Labor government. The bank had been privately owned since its founding in 1694.|
|1946 DC-6 Introduced - (2/15/46) Douglas Aircraft introduced the DC-6 airplane. The DC-6 was a derivative of the DC-4. It used the same wings as the DC-4, but had more powerful engines and a longer fuselage. The DC-6 could seat 52 passengers. A total of 702 DC-6 were produced in three civilian and two military versions of the aircraft.|
|1946 Peron becomes Dictator of Argentina - (2/24/46) Colonel Juan Perón was elected President of Argentina. His supporters won absolute control of both houses of the legislature. In 1948, he was granted unlimited power, thereby transforming him into an absolute dictator.|
|1946 Iron Curtain Descends on Europe - (3/12/46) Prime Minister Churchill, at an address in Fulton, Missouri, on March 12, stated: "From Stettin in the Baltics, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent." Thus, Churchill put forth the concept that Europe had been divided between East and West.|
|1946 Chinese Civil War Resumes - (4/14/46) Upon the surrender of Japan, which concluded World War II, war once again broke out between the Communists and the Nationalists in China. Attempts were made to come to an agreement, but all efforts failed. By the beginning of 1946, full-scale fighting had developed between the two sides. Initially, the war went well for the Nationalists.|
|1946 Republican Government Organized in Italy - (6/2/46)The Italian people voted in a referendum to abolish the Monarchy and establish a Republic. Victor Emmanuel III had abdicated in 1944, in favor of his son, Umberto. Umberto now went into exile in Portugal. Enrico de Nicola became the provisional president and served until the new constitution went into effect, on January 1, 1948.|
|1946 Republic of the Philippines Inauguration - On the 4th of July, 1946, the independent Republic of the Philippines was officially declared. In order to help the Philippines rebuild the country after the ravages of World War II, the US Congress had passed the Rehabilitation Act, providing for payment of war claims.|
|1946 Atomic Test At Bikini Atoll - (6/30/46) The United States began a series of tests at Bikini Islands in the Pacific. The tests included the first underwater test of the atomic bomb.|
|1946 Congress Party Dominates Indian Assembly - (7/25/46) Congress Party, led by Jawaharlal Nehru, won 201 of the 210 seats put aside for the Hindus. The Muslim League, who favored Muslim separation, won 73 of the 78 seats reserved for Muslims.|
|1946 Greeks Vote For Return of Monarchy - (9/1/46) In a special referendum, seventy percent of Greeks voted in favor of returning King George II to power. This return resulted in the outbreak of a civil war between Monarchists and Communist opponents of the government.|
|1946 Vietnamese Resist, French Try To Regain Control - In September 1946, Ho Chi Minh, leader of the Nationalist opposition to the Japanese, declared Vietnam independent. France was not willing to grant full independence. Attempts were made to reach an agreement with Ho Chi Minh for Vietnam to be a Free State within the French Union. When talks broke down, the French Navy bombarded Haiphong, killing 6,000 people. The French did reach an agreement with Boa Dai, the former emperor of Annan, who agreed to the French plan of an independent state within the French Union. The result was a war that lasted for 30 years.|
|1946 Meteor Sets World Speed Record - (9/7/46) The Meteor, Britain's jet fighter, attained a speed of 611 mph, setting a new world speed record.|
|1946 Spock Publishes Book on Baby Care - Benjamin Spock published "The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care." The book went on to sell 25,000,000 copies and revolutionize childcare.|
|1946 Verdicts at Nuremberg - (10/16/46) Nine of Nazi Germany's top leaders were hung at the end of their trials. They were accused of crimes "so calculated, so malignant, and so devastating, that civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored, because it cannot survive their being repeated." The crimes included the murder of at least six million European Jews.|
|1946 Baruch Plan For Atomic Control - The United States Representative to the UN Atomic Energy Commission unveiled a plan under which the US would surrender its monopoly of atomic weapons to an international body. The Soviets refused the proposal, and proceeded to develop their own weapons.|
|1946 First Electronic Computer - The first all-electronic computer was designed by John William Mauchly. The computer, called the ENIAC, weighed 30 tons.|
|1947 Truman Doctrine- (3/12/47) In 1946, Communist guerrillas had begun a civil war against the government of Greece. The Communist government of Yugoslavia gave substantial support to the guerrillas, while the British had provided the Greek government with aid. Eventually, the British informed the United States that Britain could no longer help support the regime in Greece.|
The Greeks officially requested American aid and, on March 12th, President Truman went before Congress and requested support for Greece as well as for Turkey. A total of $400 million was requested. Truman stated: "I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure."
The Senate approved his request, 67 to 23, and the House approved it, 287 to 107.
|1947 Revolt Against French Rule Madagascar- (3/29/47)A nationalist rebellion broke out in Madagascar. White settlers were assaulted, plantations burned and French garrisons attacked. It took the French more than a year to put down the revolt.|
|1947 Marshall Plan Unvieled - (6/5/47) On June 5th, Marshall gave a commencement address at Harvard. He stated: "It is logical that the United States should do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economic health in the world, without which there can be no political stability and no assured peace. Our policy is directed, not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desertion and chaos."|
|1947 Taft-Hartley Act -(6/23/47) The Taft-Hartley Act provided the President with the power to obtain an 80–day injunction against any strike. It also gave him the power of appointing a board of inquiry to oversee collective bargaining. It also banned closed shops. The bill was passed, over the veto of the President, in response to a wave of strikes.|
|1947 India/Pakistan Gain Independence - (8/15/47) In 1942, Indian Nationalists had spurned the British offer of autonomy within the British Empire. They demanded complete independence. After the Second World War, the British agreed to independence. However, no agreement could be reached between the Hindus and Moslems. Large scale rioting ensued, in which thousands died. An accord was finally reached to establish two states: Hindu India and Moslem Pakistan. On August 15th, the two new states achieved independence. Millions of refugees were created in both countries.|
|1947 Yaeger Breaks Sound Barrier -(10/14/47) American test pilot Captain Charles Yaeger broke the sound barrier on October 14. He flew a Bell X-1 test plane, that was dropped from a specially modified B-29. Yaeger reached a speed of 670 miles per hour, at an altitude of 42,000 feet.|
|1947 Unrest In Palestine - Britain Turns Problem Over To UN -On November 29, 1947, the U.N. General Assembly met to vote on the proposal to partition Palestine. All of Zionist foreign policy was tied to this one moment. Members of the Zionist delegation lobbied continually to ensure that the partition motion was passed. The members of the American Zionist Movement were especially instrumental in influencing many wavering delegations to vote for the partition. The final results were as follows:|
Supporting the partition:
After the vote, Abba Hillel Silver spoke on behalf of the Jewish Agency, saying, "The Jewish people will be forever grateful to the nations which contributed to the decision; we're especially appreciative of the leadership provided by the United States and the Soviet Union, and are happy that, in the solution of the Palestine problem, these two great powers worked harmoniously together."
|1947 Gigantic Spruce Goose Flies -(11/2/47)In May 1942, Howard Hughes began to build the world's largest airplane, or what he called at the time "an unsinkable liberty ship." The aircraft was designed to carry 700 troops. Initially, it was a joint venture between Hughes and Kaiser shipping, but Kaiser pulled out. Ultimately, Hughes spent $7 million of his own money on the project, while the US Government spent $17 million. Many people said that it would never get off the ground. On November 2, they were proved wrong. The giant Spruce Goose, whose wing span was 320 feet, lifted off for a one mile flight across the harbor. The plane was never to fly again.|
|1947 B - 47 Enters Service -(12/17/47) On December 17, the first Boeing B-47 flew. It was the first all-jet bomber. It carried a crew of three. The B-47 had a revolutionary design. It was the first bomber built with a swept wing. A total of 2,040 B-47s were delivered to the Airforce.|
What Happened in 1947 Important News and Events, Key Technology and Popular Culture
What happened in 1947 Major News Stories include Kon-Tiki expedition, Roswell UFO incident, India and Pakistan Beome Independent Nations, CIA established. IMF Established, Ferrari begins production of sports cars, Cold War Beginnings between East and West, United Nations votes in favor of the creation of an Independent Jewish State of Israel, Technology includes First "instant camera", "Tubeless Tire", Transistor is invented, Sound Barrier Broken, First Mobile Phone,
1947 In most areas of consumer goods demand outstripped supply in the US and the British car makers took advantage of these shortages by exporting as many cars as they could to help boost British jobs and economy and many Americans liked the idiosyncrasies from these British cars like Austin, Hillman and MG's. This year saw some of the most significant inventions that would impact lives for many years to come including the Transistor and the Mobile Phone. The start of the Cold War which lasted close to 4 decades is also seen as the Worlds two Super Powers USA and USSR worry about the dominance, politics and influence of each other on the other countries in the world. And many couples started lives living with parents due to the continuing shortages in housing
Jump To World Leaders -- Calendar -- Technology -- Popular Culture -- News and Events -- Born This Year -- Cost Of Living
Cabinet Mission Plan failed to achieve its goal of bringing an end to the political deadlock in India. However, the plan of establishing Interim Government, though reluctantly and with many&hellip
By the end of July 1946, British India elected its Constituent Assembly, consisting of 296 members. The Congress had won all the general seats except nine whereas the Muslim League&hellip
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This site is based on the best-selling CD-ROM “Story of Pakistan: A Multimedia Journey”. The contents of the site focus on the political history of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Read More
"The Story of Pakistan, its struggle and its achievement, is the very story of great human ideals, struggling to survive in the face of odds and difficulties."
A Timeline of Ford Motor Company
Since the company's founding in 1903, the name Ford has been synonymous with the automotive industry. Company founder Henry Ford Sr. became known for innovation, transforming cars into commodities for the masses and his company into an American icon. Below, selected milestones from the company's history:
June 16, 1903 : Henry Ford and 11 investors sign articles of incorporation for Ford Motor Company in Michigan.
Oct. 1, 1908 : Ford introduces the Model T, which became one of the most popular cars in the world. Production officially ended in May 1927 after total world production of 15,458,781.
Oct. 7, 1913 : The Highland Park plant in Michigan begins operations as the first moving automobile assembly line in the world.
Jan. 5, 1914 : Ford begins offering $5 per day for eight-hour work days and 15,000 job seekers clamor for 3,000 jobs at the Model T Plant in Highland Park. The previous pay rate was $2.34 per day for nine hours.
March 1, 1941 : Ford begins to produce general-purpose "jeeps" for the U.S. military and shifts completely to military production starting in Feb. 1942 . Civilian production does not resume until July 1945 .
Jan. 17, 1956 : Ford common stock goes on sale, with 10.2 million shares sold in the first day, representing 22 percent of the company.
Sept. 7, 1987 : Ford acquires 75 percent of Aston Martin Lagonda, Ltd.
Dec. 31, 1988 : Ford's worldwide earnings were $5.3 billion, the highest of any auto company to date.
Dec. 1, 1989 : Ford spends $2.5 billion to buy Jaguar Cars.
March 15, 1990 : Ford introduces the Explorer sport utility vehicle. Though the Explorer is the nation's best-selling SUV model, sales hit a 15-year low in Nov. 2005 and fell 29 percent for 2005.
July 1, 1992 : Ford buys 50 percent of Mazda Motor Manufacturing and changes that company's name to AutoAlliance International.
June 20, 1993 : Ford opens its first dealerships in China. Its brand sales in China increased 46 percent in 2005, though it still lags behind General Motors Corp. and Germany's Volkwagen AG in China. By the end of 2005, the number of Ford dealers in China totaled 150, up from 100 in 2004.
April 18, 1993 : Ford begins production of the Flexible-Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Taurus. FFVs can burn gasoline, ethanol or mixtures of the two. Despite the fact that there are an estimated 5 million FFVs, there are only about 500 ethanol fuel stations in the country. According to the law, if automakers produce FFVs, they can also produce more of other cars that consume more gas.
Aug. 21, 1997 : Ford sells the first taxicabs run on natural gas to New York City.
August 2000 : Bridgestone/Firestone recalls 6.5 million tires after 271 rollover deaths in Ford Explorers.
May 2001 : Ford Motor unilaterally recalls 13 million more tires and Bridgestone/Firestone dumps Ford as a customer, saying Ford was using the tire maker as a scapegoat to deflect attention from problems with the Ford Explorer. Federal investigators ultimately concluded that tire defects were the main cause of the rollovers.
July 11, 2005 : Ford's new gas-electric hybrid SUV, the Mercury Mariner, goes on sale. It costs $4,000 more than the gas-only version and has the endorsement of the Sierra Club.
Nov. 1, 2005 : Bridgestone Firestone North American Tire LLC agrees to pay Ford $240 million to help cover the costs of the tire recalls, which amounted to $2 billion.
Dec. 22, 2005 : The United Auto Workers agrees to a deal with Ford in which 99 cents an hour of any future wage increases will go towards a health-care fund. Insurance deductibles will rise by as much as 33 percent, and the costs for current retirees will also go up. The changes will save Ford about $650 million a year. (Ford's health-care bill for 2005 was $3.5 billion.)
Dec. 23, 2005 : Ford announces it will transfer $2 billion to shore up Jaguar Cars, which it bought in 1989 for almost $3 billion in today's prices.
2005 : Ford loses market share for the 10th year in a row, and also loses its place as America's best-selling brand to GM's Chevrolet. Ford sold around 2.9 million vehicles in 2005 for a 17.4 percent market share -- down from a market share of 18.3 percent in 2004 and of 24 percent in 1990.
Jan. 23, 2006 : Ford announces it will cut up to 30,000 jobs and idle 14 plants by the year 2012.
Postwar Europe and Japan: October 1945-September 1951
Shortly after the end of World War II, the United Nations charter was ratified and the Nuremberg trials opened. The World War II timeline below details these and other events from late 1945 and early 1946.
World War II Timeline: October 1945-March 1946
October 9, 1945: French collaborator Pierre Laval is sentenced to death in a French court.
October 24, 1945: The United Nations Charter is ratified by its five permanent members: the United States, Britain, France, China, and the Soviet Union.
November 13, 1945: Free French leader General Charles de Gaulle is named president of France's provisional government.
November 20, 1945: The Nuremberg Trials open. For the next 10 months, a tribunal comprised of Allied jurists will pass judgment on scores of Nazi war criminals.
December 6, 1945: The U.S. government commits to a multibillion-dollar loan to prop up the British economy.
1946: The U.S. government closes the camps in which some 120,000 ethnic Japanese in the American West had been incarcerated since 1942.
January 1, 1946: Emperor Hirohito addresses his subjects and tells them that he is not, contrary to popular belief, a divine being.
January 17, 1946: The United Nations Security Council convenes in London to agree on procedural rules for the international body.
January 24, 1946: The International Atomic Energy Commission is established to help regulate emerging nuclear weapons technology.
March 2, 1946: Nationalist leader Ho Chi Minh is elected president of Vietnam.
March 5, 1946: Winston Churchill delivers his seminal "iron curtain" speech at Missouri's Westminster College.
World War II Headlines
In World War II's wake, millions in Europe were left homeless, and former American GIs struggled to adjust to civilian life. The headlines below highlight these and other postwar issues.
Soldier's postwar adjustment reflected in the movies: The 1946 Academy Award for best picture went to The Best Years of Our Lives, which chronicled the return home of an Army Air Force officer, an infantry sergeant, and a sailor after the war. The film depicted the difficulties they and their families experienced during the readjustment. It was an accurate portrayal of what husbands and wives faced after years of separation. Not only had the GIs changed after two or more years overseas, but the experience had changed many wives and older children, who had taken on greater responsibilities in the absence of husbands and fathers. Also, many young children met their fathers for the first time.
Unease in Korea continues: The mutual mistrust between Americans and Russians that would lead to the Cold War had already begun. Soviet Union troops poured into Japanese-occupied Korea well before U.S. forces were prepared to establish a presence there. U.S. leaders feared that the Russians would seize the entire peninsula and possibly move into Japan as well. An agreement was hastily reached that the Russians would stop at the 38th parallel, which roughly divided Korea in half. Much to Americans' relief, the Russians abided by the pact.
Millions displaced by World War II: During the winter of 1945-46, upwards of 20 million displaced persons either lived in camps or struggled to survive in all major cities of Europe. Reported Life magazine in its January 7, 1946, issue: "In Warsaw nearly 1 million live in holes in the ground." Vital resources were lacking in those countries most affected by the war. Stated Life: "[I]n Greece fuel supplies are terribly low because the Nazis, during their occupation, decimated the forests. In Italy the wheat harvest, which was a meager 3,450,000 million tons in 1944, fell to an unendurable 1,304,000 million tons in 1945."
Continue to the next section for more postwar headlines and a timeline of events from April 1946 to February 1947.
For more timelines and information on World War II events, see:
The suffering of millions of Europeans did not end on May 7, 1945, the day Nazi Germany surrendered. More than 11 million displaced persons (DPs), freed from slave labor and concentration camps, were now alone, hundreds of miles from home. Many returned to their towns or cities by the end of 1945, but almost two million either had no home to return to or feared going home. In particular, Jews of Eastern Europe anticipated continued persecution should they return to their homelands.
To provide for the welfare of those remaining behind, DP camps were created throughout Germany. Initially, the accommodations in the camps were atrocious. "Housing conditions here [in Babenhausen] are horrible," repeated one displaced person. "They used to be stalls for the horses of the Third Reich now they are homes for the surviving Jews. Jews did not want to leave the trains so as to have to move in here."
When President Harry Truman learned of the conditions in these camps, he delegated Earl Harrison, dean of the University of Pennsylvania Law School, to study this problem. Harrison visited 30 DP camps before issuing a report to the president. "Beyond knowing that they are no longer in danger of the gas chambers, torture or other forms of violent death," Harrison wrote, they were left to "wonder and frequently ask what 'liberation' means." Eventually, life in the camps improved. All but one camp closed by 1952, and the last facility suspended operations in 1957.
Moore School lectures take place
An inspiring summer school on computing at the University of Pennsylvania´s Moore School of Electrical Engineering stimulates construction of stored-program computers at universities and research institutions in the US, France, the UK, and Germany. Among the lecturers were early computer designers like John von Neumann, Howard Aiken, J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, as well as mathematicians including Derrick Lehmer, George Stibitz, and Douglas Hartree. Students included future computing pioneers such as Maurice Wilkes, Claude Shannon, David Rees, and Jay Forrester. This free, public set of lectures inspired the EDSAC, BINAC, and, later, IAS machine clones like the AVIDAC.
Whirlwind installation at MIT
A timeline of events in 1946-1947 - History
Jan 17 A harsh winter is aggravating Europe. There is economic stagnation, inflation, hunger and political unrest. Churchill is visiting the United States as a private citizen and asks the United States for help in policing Europe. Doing so is too much of a financial burden for Britain.
Jan 17 A US military unit has been in China to disarm the Japanese. The court martial of a US Marine begins, accused of raping a Peiping (Beijing) university student. The rape has touched off monstrous demonstrations across China against the US military presence, targeting China's government for allowing foreign troops on Chinese territory. The Pentagon believes that US forces are no longer needed in China. The Marines will be out by the end of May.
Jan 19 In Poland, a coalition dominated by the Communist Party wins 80 percent of the vote in parliamentary elections. Stalin is succeeding for the time being in having a friendly Poland between the Soviet Union and Germany.
Jan 21 The Soviet Union asks the UN Security Council to look into Britain's interventions in Greece and Indonesia.
Jan 28 Unhappy with the recent elections in Poland, the United States charges that the Provisional Government of Poland has "failed to carry out its solemn pledges" to conduct free and untrammeled elections as called for in the Yalta and Potsdam Agreements.
Feb 17 The US begins Voice of America radio transmissions into the Soviet Union, viewed by Russians as hostility.
Feb 28 Chiang Kai-shek, China's anti-Communist ruler, sends soldiers against rioting Taiwanese. Between 18,000 and 28,000 will be said to have been massacred. Many Taiwanese disappear.
Mar 12 To a joint session of Congress, President Truman proclaims what will become known as the Truman Doctrine. The US is to aide Greece and Turkey, to support "free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way." A few conservatives are opposed. One Congressman complains about do-gooders getting "us all broke."
Mar 19 Chiang Kai-shek's troops take control of Yenan, which had been a base for China's Communist Party. Chiang has created a National Assembly that the Communists think is bogus in that it does not have representation for those who side with them rather than with Chiang.
Mar 21 President Truman sees fears of a Communist takeover or influence on the US government as ridiculous, but he is responding to public pressure. He institutes a program of loyalty oaths for federal employees.
Mar 29 A nationalist group in Madagascar rises against French rule. The revolt spreads quickly, with some expecting help from the United States.
Apr 3 In the US, the Attorney General's List of Subversive Organizations is created under President Truman's Executive Order 9835. Among those on the list are 71 organizations and 11 schools viewed as "adjuncts of the Communist Party." Also on the list are the Ku Klux Klan and a patriotic society for Japanese veterans of the Russo-Japanese War.
Apr 15 Jackie Robinson begins playing baseball, at first base, for the Brooklyn Dodgers.
Apr 16 With "enemies" in mind the phrase "Cold War" is invented. In his home state of South Carolina, Bernard Baruch, multimillionaire financier and adviser to presidents, says "Let us not be deceived. We are today in the midst of a Cold War. Our enemies are to be found abroad and at home. Let us never forget this." Some in the US would think of Russia and communists as intent on destroying the US or at least intent on helping Americans change their way of life. Some others would think it a mistake to consider philosophical or political adversaries as enemies and that the "Cold War" was fiction.
Apr 18 Father Josef Tiso, wartime "leader" in Slovakia, is hanged.
Apr 22 In a game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and the Philadelphia Phillies, players for the Phillies shout continual abuse at Jackie Robinson, calling him "nigger" and advising him to go back to the jungle.
Jun 5 A few people in the US are concerned that hardship in Europe will bolster Marxist arguments and add to the appeal of Communism. At Harvard University, the US Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, outlines an economic recovery plan for Europe. He speaks of the need to protect political stability and peace. "Our policy, he says, "is directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos."
Jun 30 In China, the Communists have begun mobile warfare against Chiang's government. They have crossed the Yellow River, recruiting people as they advance.
Jul 3 Stalin is hostile toward the Marshall Plan &ndash not yet approved by the US Congress. He accuses the Western powers of seeking to divide Europe into two hostile camps.
Jul 11 A Czech delegation returns from Moscow and announces that the decision to receive Marshall Plan assistance has been cancelled.
Aug 14 Pakistan splits from India and gains independence from the British Empire.
Aug 15 India gains independence from the British Empire.
Sep 7 Stalin is worried about economic recovery in that part of Germany occupied by Britain, France and the United States. He proclaims that "imperialists want war."
Sep 9 In Argentina, women receive the right to vote
Sep 12 In Haifa, Palestine, a labor leader, Sami Taha, is assassinated.
Sep 13 Thousands of Arab workers form a funeral procession for Sami Taha. British authorities detain two Jewish women regarding the assassination.
Sep 16 Arab League Secretary Azzam Pasha rejects a Jewish plan for partition, saying. "Nations never concede, they fight." About the Jews fighting for partition he says "We shall try to defeat you. I am not sure we'll succeed, but we'll try. We were able to drive out the Crusaders, but on the other hand we lost Spain and Persia. It may be that we shall lose Palestine. But it's too late to talk of peaceful solutions."
Sep 19 The rightist Jewish guerrilla fighters, the Irgun, bomb a police station in Haifa, killing four British policemen, four Arab policemen, two Arab civilians and wound 46 others.
Sep 30 In the United States around 14,000 television sets are in use, and the World Series is televised for the first time.
Oct 16 Britain urges the United Nations to begin creating a suitable authority to replace the British administration of Palestine.
Oct 27 Film stars who belong to the Committee for the First Amendment arrive in Washington D.C. They include John Huston, William Wyler, Humphrey Bogart, Lauren Bacall, Danny Kaye and Gene Kelly. They are unhappy with the committee's investigation of communism in the film industry. They are for letting artists work free of government interference. Danny Kaye claims that the motion picture industry has not been putting propaganda into its work. Gene Kelly follows, saying: "As Mr. Kaye has remarked, its pretty hard to find any propaganda in pictures."
Nov 29 By a narrow margin, the United Nations General Assembly passes a resolution for the partition of Palestine. The Soviet Union and Truman administration have voted in favor. The resolution calls for Jerusalem to be under international control.
Dec 9 France has been paralyzed by a general strike, said to have been a Communist Party bid for power. The strike is considered a failure and called off.
Dec 16 William Shockley, at Bell Laboratories, invents the transistor, destined to replace glass tubes in electrical equipment.
Dec 25 The French have not yet completely suppressed the revolt in Madagascar. Around 60,000 people have died. Europeans and those friendly toward the French have been attacked and killed.
Dec 27 Greece's pro-monarchist government outlaws the country's Communist Party.
Dec 30 In Communist dominated Romania, King Michael, great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria, is forced to abdicate.
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The Journey To Independence
The Indian Mutiny, also known as the Sepoy Mutiny, ignited the first spark of the revolution. It began in Meerut and later spread to Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, and Lucknow. It was quite widespread.
Champaran Satyagraha of 1917:
It was the first satyagraha inspired by Mahatma Gandhi. The farmers in the Champaran district of Bihar were being forced to grow indigo. Besides, they were barely paid anything for their produce. This led to a farmer’s uprising.
The flag of victory | Image: File Image
The Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920:
It was led by Mahatma Gandhi post the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. The movement lasted 2 years from 1920 to 1922. It embodied the idea of ‘non-violence’ or “Ahimsa”. Where protestors refused to buy British goods and adopted local goods. Indeed, it was the most significant phase of the Indian Independence Movement.
The Dandi March of 1930:
It is the most iconic act of non-violent civil disobedience. Gandhiji, along with a huge crowd walked from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi beach as a means of non-violent protest against the repressive salt tax imposed by the British government.
Gentle On The Planet And Clothes: The Best Organic Laundry Detergents In India
7 Days, 7 Positive Stories: The Weekly Roundup, June 1st To June 13th
7 Days, 7 Positive Stories: The Weekly Roundup, May 24th To 30th May
Quit India Movement of 1942:
The Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee got this movement rolling on 8th August 1942, during World War II. The mission was as clear as water – an end to the British Rule of India. In addition, Gandhiji made a call to Do or Die in his Quit India speech that he delivered in Bombay.
Indian Independence League 1947:
The Indian Independence League extended to people living outside India. It sought their approval of revoking the British colonial rule over India. The league was located in various parts of Southeast Asia.
Indian Independence Act of 1947:
The Indian Independence Act was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The act partitioned British India into two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan. It received the assent of the royal family on 18th July 1947. In effect, India came into existence on August 15th and Pakistan on 14th August in the year 1947.
The timeline of Indian history from 1857 to 1947 traces the continuous and rigorous efforts our freedom fighters took to free the nation. And so, with it, 200 long years of slavery, oppression, and colonization came to an end!
Cold War Events (1945 - 1947)
Definition and Summary of Cold War Events (1945 - 1947)
This article contains a summary and definition of the main Cold War events from 1945 - 1947. Interesting facts and dates of key Cold War Events covering the Yalta Conference, the Potsdam Conference, the United Nations, the Iron Curtain, the Long Telegram, Operation Crossroads, Containment, the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan and the National Security Act of 1947.
Cold War Events (1945 - 1947)
Yalta Conference ● Potsdam Conference ● The United Nations ● The Iron Curtain ● The Long Telegram ● Operation Crossroads ● Containment ● The Truman Doctrine ● The Marshall Plan ● National Security Act of 1947 ●
The Cold War Events for kids : The Cold War Presidents
There were nine Cold War Presidents between 1945 - 1991. The names of the Cold War Presidents were Harry Truman, Dwight D Eisenhower, John F Kennedy, Lyndon B Johnson, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan and George H Bush. Many of the Cold War presidents used the Policy of Containment to resolve serious, diplomatic incidents involving the Communist countries.
The Cold War Events (1945 - 1947) for kids : Definition of the Potsdam Conference (1945)
Summary and Definition: The purpose of the Potsdam Conference (17 July 17, 1945 to August 2, 1945), led by Harry S. Truman, Clement Attlee and Joseph Stalin, to clarify and implement the terms for the for the end of WW2. The leaders agreed that Germany would be split into four zones of occupation (the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union and France). During the conference Harry Truman, who was strongly anti-communist and highly suspicious of Stalin, informed the Soviets that the US had successfully tested the Atomic Bomb.
The Cold War Events (1945 - 1947) for kids : Definition of the Atomic Bomb (1945)
Summary and Definition: The Atomic Bomb was developed by scientists in the US working on the Manhattan Project. The atomic bomb, "Little Boy" was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and "Fat Man" was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945 and ended WW2. The Atomic bomb ended WW2 but began the Cold War arms race.
The Cold War Events (1945 - 1947) for kids : Definition of the United Nations (1945)
Summary and Definition: The United Nations (UN) was established on 24 October 1945, after WW2 had ended, to preserve world peace and promote international co-operation in order to prevent another war. The United Nations replaced the ineffective League of Nations and was established as a multinational body to consider international problems and offer resolutions with a view to avoiding another conflict. The UN's mission was complicated in its early years by the Cold War between the US and Soviet Union and their respective allies.
The Cold War Events (1945 - 1947) for kids : Definition of the Eastern Bloc - The Iron Curtain (1945)
Summary and Definition: Russian military forces, driving back the Nazis in WW2, occupied large areas of Eastern Europe. To safeguard the USSR from future invasion Stalin's plan was to establish a 'buffer zone' of friendly, Communist states around Russia called the 'Satellite Nations'. The "impenetrable barrier" of the Eastern Bloc, known as the Iron Curtain, began to descend separating the Communist countries of Eastern Europe under the influence of the USSR from the democratic countries of the West. The Soviet Union prevented contact between the 'Satellite Nations' and the Free World. The Communists behind the Iron Curtain controlled the army and set up a secret police force. Opponents of Communism were arrested and many were executed.
The Cold War Events (1945 - 1947) for kids : Definition of Operation Crossroads at Bikini Atoll (1946)
Summary and Definition: Operation Crossroads at Bikini Atoll was the first public demonstration of America's atomic arsenal after the Atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Operation Crossroads was two nuclear weapon tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands during 1946. The purpose of Operation Crossroads, which included two shots ABLE and BAKER, was to investigate the effect of nuclear weapons on naval warships. The first test, codenamed ABLE, occurred on July 1, 1946 when an implosion-type atomic bomb (nicknamed Gilda) was dropped from a B-29. The second test of Operation Crossroads was codenamed Test BAKER, was the first underwater test of an atomic bomb.
The Cold War Events (1945 - 1947) for kids : Definition of the Containment Policy
Summary and Definition: Containment was the policy of restricting communist expansion by keeping communism within its present territory by diplomatic, military and economic actions. The US policy of Containment was used when the Soviets made a move on Eastern Europe and the Middle East. During WW2 Soviet troops occupied Northern Iran. Instead of withdrawing the Soviets remained in Northern Iran, demanding access to Iran's oil supplies and helping Communists in Northern Iran to set up a separate government. The US protested and sent the USS Missouri battleship into the Eastern Mediterranean. The Soviets withdrew and Americans spoke of "rolling back" communism. But the USSR takeover attempts also extended to Europe and their sights were set on Turkey and Greece. (The US policy of Containment was to play a major role in diplomatic, economic and military actions during the Cold War). The policy of Containment gave rise to the Domino Theory which speculated that if one region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a falling domino effect.
The Cold War Events (1945 - 1947) for kids : Definition of the Truman Doctrine (1947)
Summary and Definition: Containment was a key element of the Truman Doctrine . Stalin withdrew from Northern Iran but then demanded joint control of the sea ports of the Dardanelles with Turkey. Communists in Greece then launched a guerrilla war against the government. The British sent troops to fight in Greece but were forced to ask the US for help. On March 27, 1947 Truman made a speech to Congress, that became known as the Truman Doctrine, warning that it was America's job to quash the communist aggression in Turkey and Greece. The effects of the Truman Doctrine were to ease the Soviet demands in Turkey and stabilize the Greek government. In the Truman Doctrine, President Harry Truman pledged to support nations in their struggle to resist communism.
The Cold War Events (1945 - 1947) for kids : Definition of the Marshall Plan (1947)
Summary and Definition: The European Recovery Program, the Marshall Plan, was proposed by Secretary of State George C. Marshall in June 1947 in response to the economic ruin and political chaos in many European countries following WW2. The Marshall Plan was a US-financed relief package, providing funds to European nations to assist their reconstruction and was essential for the success of the US policy of containment. The Soviets and the satellite nations established their own economic program - Comecon. The Mutual Defense Assistance Act, aka the Military Marshall Plan, was passed by US Congress in October 1949 authorizing the US government to supply military aid, equipment and support to nations at risk from communism.
The Cold War Events for kids : Definition of the 1947 Roswell UFO Incident and Area 51
Summary and Definition: The development of new weapons and aircraft led to various conspiracy theories centered around the Roswell UFO Incident in New Mexico and the top secret military base in the Nevada desert referred to as Area 51.
Cold War Events
For visitors interested in the history of the Cold War refer to the following articles: