19 April 1945
British begin the attack on Bremen
US 1st Army captures Halle and Leipzig
14th Army takes Magwe and Myingum
Japanese troops hold out on Bloody Ridge on Ie Shima
War at Sea
German submarine U-251 sunk off Goteborg
German submarine U-1017 sunk with all hands north west of Ireland
Eisenhower Asks Congress and Press to Witness Nazi Horrors
General Eisenhower invited members of Congress and journalists to see the newly liberated camps so that they could bring the horrible truth about Nazi atrocities to the American public.
Frame Your Search
Eisenhower, Congress, congressmen, press, Ohrdruf, Buchenwald, concentration camp, delegation
In late 1944 and early 1945, as Allied troops defeated the German army and moved across Europe into Germany, they encountered tens of thousands of concentration camp prisoners.
Soviet forces were the first to approach a major Nazi camp, reaching Majdanek near Lublin, Poland, in July 1944. Later, the Soviets liberated Auschwitz, the largest killing center and concentration camp, in January 1945. In the following months, the Soviets liberated additional camps in the Baltic states, Poland, and eventually in Germany itself. In April and May 1945, the British liberated Nazi camps in northern Germany, including Bergen-Belsen and Neuengamme.
The first Nazi camp liberated by US forces was Ohrdruf , a subcamp of Buchenwald (the main camp would be liberated one week later). The 4th Armored Division and the 89th Infantry of the Third US Army entered Ohrdruf on April 4, 1945 . When soldiers of the 4th Armored Division entered the camp, they discovered piles of bodies, some covered with lime, and others partially incinerated on pyres. The ghastly nature of their discovery led General Dwight D. Eisenhower , Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe, to visit the camp on April 12, with Generals George S. Patton and Omar Bradley. After his visit, Eisenhower cabled General George C. Marshall, the head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Washington, describing his trip to Ohrdruf:
The things I saw beggar description. &hellip The visual evidence and the verbal testimony of starvation, cruelty and bestiality were so overpowering as to leave me a bit sick . . I made the visit deliberately, in order to be in a position to give first-hand evidence of these things if ever, in the future, there develops a tendency to charge these allegations merely to &ldquopropaganda.&rdquo
Seeing the Nazi crimes committed at Ohrdruf made a powerful impact on Eisenhower, and he wanted the world to know what happened in the concentration camps. On April 19, 1945 , he again cabled Marshall with a request to bring members of Congress and journalists to the newly liberated camps so that they could convey the horrible truth about Nazi atrocities to the American public. Within days, congressmen and journalists began arriving to bear witness to Nazi crimes in the camps.
The discovery of the Ohrdruf camp, and the subsequent liberation of Dora-Mittelbau (April 11), Flossenbürg (April 23), Dachau (April 29), and Mauthausen (May 5) opened the eyes of many US soldiers and the American public to the horrors perpetrated by the Nazis during the Holocaust.
Dates to Check
Typically, daily newspapers reported news the morning after it occurred. However, some papers were printed in multiple editions, including evening news. If you are using an evening paper, begin your search on the same day as the event being researched.
April 20 - 27, 1945 News about General Eisenhower's invitation to members of Congress and the press.
April 20, 1945 - May 31, 1945 News, editorials, opinion pieces, letters to the editor, and political cartoons reporting on Congressional delegations and journalists visiting the liberated camps.
April 5, 1945 - May 15, 1945 News about American liberation of concentration camps (e.g., Buchenwald, Dachau, Flossenbürg, Mauthausen).
April 1945 - June 1945 Editorials, opinion pieces, letters to the editor, and political cartoons responding to the American liberation of concentration camps.
Abzug, Robert H. GIs Remember: Liberating the Concentration Camps . Washington, DC: National Museum of American Jewish History, 1994.
Abzug, Robert H. Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi Concentration Camps . New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Bridgman, Jon. End of the Holocaust: The Liberation of the Camps . Portland, OR: Areopagitica Press, 1990.
Chamberlin, Brewster S., and Marcia Feldman, editors. The Liberation of the Nazi Concentration Camps 1945: Eyewitness Accounts of the Liberators . Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 1987.
Goodell, Stephen, and Kevin Mahoney. 1945: The Year of Liberation . Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1995.
Goodell, Stephen, and Susan D. Bachrach. Liberation 1945 . Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 1995.
19 April 1945 - History
By Nathan N. Prefer
They knew they were coming. They had been waiting for days, expecting at any minute to be rushed to battle stations, but for days nothing much had happened. Veterans of naval battles at the Coral Sea, Guadalcanal, Leyte Gulf, and the Philippine Sea couldn’t explain it. Where were the Japanese? Even ashore at the beachhead the Fifth U.S. fleet was protecting, the Japanese Army was nowhere to be found. The Tenth U.S. Army was seeking it, moving deeper into Okinawa.
True, there had been some evidence of the enemy. A few single planes had appeared over the fleet in recent days and struck hard. On the evening of the first landings on Okinawa a Japanese kamikaze had crashed into the transport Alpine and blown two huge holes in her side, killing 16 and wounding 27. Nearby, the Achernar was both crashed and bombed by conventional attackers, losing five killed and 41 wounded.
So keyed up were the Americans that a false alarm resulted in many of the ships firing wildly at imaginary aircraft in the darkness, smoke screens being ordered, and ships attempting to evade these imaginary attackers coming dangerously close to collision.
The American destroyer USS Leutze plows through heavy seas. The ship would sustain heavy damage in her brief wartime service and was decommissioned in December 1945.
Yet, the massive enemy air attack expected by the Americans didn’t develop. Despite American intelligence reports of thousands of Japanese aircraft being hoarded in Japan for a devastating air attack on any fleet invading Okinawa, no attack developed in the opening days of the Okinawa campaign. Small raids continued to come against the invasion forces, such as the one on April 2, which sank the destroyer-transport USS Dickerson (Lt. Cmdr. R. E. Lounsbury) and damaged several transports carrying troops of the 77th Infantry Division, killing a regimental commander and several others.
To provide early warning of the expected attacks, Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, commander of the Fifth U.S. Fleet, had established “radar picket” posts some distance from the main fleet’s position. These posts, manned by one or two destroyers and/or destroyer escorts, were designed to provide early radar warnings of incoming enemy air raids against the fleet and beachhead. As the campaign developed, these radar pickets would instead become major targets for the incoming enemy attacks.
In the early days of the campaign, however, there was a weak spot in the defense in that no land-based aircraft had yet been established on Okinawa or the outlying islands of the Kerama Retto chain. This left the time just before dusk, when aircraft had to return to their carriers, with no protective air patrol over the fleet. With no night fighters yet available, the fleet was vulnerable during those final moments before full darkness.
The Japanese took advantage of this gap in the American defenses. On April 3, for example, the escort aircraft carrier USS Wake Island (Captain A.V. Magly) was struck by a crashing kamikaze that ripped a hole in her side, forcing her to return to Guam for repairs.
A smiling Japanese crewman ties a suicide pilot’s hachimaki (head scarf) to his leather helmet. The symbolic hachimaki was thought to bring the wearer courage.
The following day the weather turned bad, which provided better protection for the U.S. fleet because Japanese planes were unable to fly. Bombing of enemy airfields on the home island of Kyushu also contributed to a relatively quiet day on April 4. The bad weather continued until the next day, keeping the Japanese grounded and giving the fleet some respite. But it was short lived.
The weather of April 4-5 had postponed, but not cancelled, Admiral Soemu Toyoda’s planned operations. A graduate of the Japanese Naval Academy, class of 1905, he had fought in the early war battles until November 1942, when he became a member of the Japanese Supreme War Council. By May 1943, Admiral Toyoda was commanding the huge Yokosuka Naval Base. Upon the death of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, commander in chief of the Combined Fleet, Toyoda was appointed to that position. He held that post during the Battles of the Philippine Sea and Leyte Gulf, headquartered in Tokyo.
Despite these crushing defeats, Admiral Toyoda was promoted once again—to the post of Imperial Japanese Navy chief of staff. By this time, with no fleet left to speak of, Toyoda pinned his hopes on defeating the Americans with land-based air power. His plan was named Operation Ten-Go and involved concentrating Japanese air power on Kyushu and Formosa. Although his plan called for 4,500 aircraft, by April 6, 1945, he could only count on approximately 699 planes, about half of them kamikazes.
Kamikaze or shinbu (“Divine Wind” or “Spirit Wind”) pilots were those who deliberately crashed their aircraft, often loaded with bombs and fuel, into their targets, usually American warships. The tactic had been used before, particularly during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. In the final defense of Japan itself, kamikaze planes and pilots were being held in reserve for that ultimate battle.
There were a number of kamikazes besides pilots. One-man submarines, one-man glider bombs, explosive motor boats, and human torpedoes also willingly went on suicide missions, but by far the most death and destruction was delivered by the airborne kamikaze.
The weather on April 6, 1945, had improved. The wind was from the northeast, and while it was strong enough to raise whitecaps on the ocean it did little to interfere with the ships off Okinawa. With the temperature varying between 60°F to 65°F, the morning passed quietly. In mid-afternoon, Rear Admiral Morton L. Deyo’s Task Force 54, the Gunfire and Covering Force, and Rear Admiral William H.P. Blandy’s Task Force 52, the Amphibious Support Force, were ordered to form up early and perform tactical exercises until dusk and then retire together to their night positions.
As Admiral Deyo’s ships sailed toward Okinawa, they observed a kamikaze being shot down by the Combat Air Patrol over Ie Shima. As they continued, they observed other air combat and attacks on minesweepers near the invasion beaches. Task Force 54’s night position was a circle about 12,000 yards wide in which the battleships and cruisers sailed while 4,000 yards farther out a screen of destroyers patrolled. As they turned away from Ie Shima, the destroyer USS Leutze (Lieutenant Leon Grabowsky) reported an incoming aircraft about eight miles away and heading toward Task Force 54.
The Leutze was a veteran of several campaigns. Commissioned on March 4, 1944, the ship had fought as a part of Destroyer Squadron 54 during the Battle of Surigao Strait in the Philippines and had come under kamikaze attack while covering the Leyte invasion force as a part of Task Group 77.1 of the Seventh U.S. Fleet in November 1944.
At Iwo Jima, she had been a fire support ship for the minesweepers combing the waters off the eastern beaches of the island. While doing this job, she was struck by shells from a shore battery on Mount Suribachi, which hit the starboard side of the number one smoke stack.
Her commanding officer at the time, Commander B.A. Robbins, Jr., was seriously injured and a dangerous fire started in the 40mm ammunition handling room. The ship’s executive officer, Lieutenant Grabowsky, took command and kept the supporting fire over the underwater demolition teams going, while Gunners Mates Eugene Balinski and Warren H. Gurwell fought the flames that threatened to destroy the ship. After remaining on duty the rest of the day, the ship returned to Ulithi for repairs.
The badly damaged Leutze limps into port, April 9, 1945, after encountering a kamikaze off Iwo Jima. A plane hit the U.S. carrier Hancock, bounced off, and crashed into the Leutze.
Leutze returned to battle, still under Lieutenant Grabowsky’s command. Now, on April 6, 1945, she saw additional aircraft coming against Task Force 54, and her guns opened fire. So swiftly did the Japanese planes arrive that many were spotted by ships’ lookouts before they were reported on radar. All the ships in Task Force 54 opened fire, but the incoming aircraft concentrated their attention on the Leutze and the adjoining screening destroyer USS Newcomb (Commander I.E. McMillian).
As the battle raged, an enemy aircraft came skimming across the water. Despite hits knocking off pieces of the aircraft, the pilot slammed into the Newcomb’s rear stack, rupturing the ship’s boilers. As the crew fought the fires and tried to repair the boilers a second plane came in off the starboard bow but was shot down at a distance of 6,000 yards.
A crippled Zeke, with a torn-off horizontal stabilizer and a hole in its starboard wing, keels over before crashing.
A third plane followed and crashed into the destroyer amidships, near the torpedo workshop. This explosion stopped the destroyer dead in the water. Both engine rooms were destroyed, and the after (rear) fire room was wrecked. Even as the ship was erupting with fires and explosions, a fourth kamikaze hit the Newcomb at the forward stack, showering gasoline all over the already blazing ship. From the first hit to the last barely 11 minutes had elapsed.
The Newcomb was another veteran of the Pacific War. Under Commander L.B. Cook, she had fought in the Marianas Islands operation where, together with the destroyer USS Chandler, the destroyer was credited with the sinking of the Japanese submarine I-185 in June 1944. She went on to fight during the Battle of Leyte Gulf as the flagship of Destroyer Squadron 56, which included the Luetze. There she pulled the badly damaged destroyer USS Albert W. Grant out of a barrage of friendly fire to safety. Later a kamikaze near-missed her, killing two and wounding 15. By the time she arrived at Okinawa, she had been awarded no less than five Navy Unit Commendations. Then came April 6, 1945.
Seeing the blazing destroyer, Grabowski’s Leutze moved quickly to join her stricken sister ship, using her own antiaircraft guns to protect the now defenseless vessel. Boats were swung out to pick up survivors. Everyone assumed she was sinking—everyone, that is, except the captain and crew of the Newcomb. Seeing that the crewmen were fighting to save their ship, Grabowsky risked his own ship to render aid.
Even as he did so, a fifth plane appeared and headed straight for the Newcomb. The sole remaining operable gun aboard the destroyer—her 5-inch forward gun—fired and hit the plane, blasting it onto the fantail of the Leutze, where it exploded.
Now fires raged aboard the Luetze as well. The crew fought two fires, one aboard their own ship and the other aboard the Newcomb both ships were in serious danger of sinking. Another destroyer, the USS Beale (Commander J.B. Cochran), came up with all its fire hoses streaming water on the two struggling ships.
Sailors in port get a close-up view of the destroyer USS Newcomb, badly damaged by four kamikaze hits off Okinawa, April 6, 1945.
Lieutenant Grabowsky signaled, “Am pulling away. In danger of sinking,” as the Beale took over the job of helping the Newcomb. After obtaining permission, Grabowsky jettisoned his torpedoes and depth charges.
Then minesweeper USS Defense (Lt. Cmdr. Gordon Abbott), which had herself been struck by two suicide planes in the bridge structure and a 40mm antiaircraft mount behind the smokestack, took the Leutze in tow to Kerama Retto for repairs. The USS Defense was back sweeping mines five days later, having suffered 19 sailors injured.
Aboard the Newcomb, the executive officer, Lieutenant A.G. Capps, found himself trapped under a wing of one of the kamikaze planes that had hit the ship. Pulled out by crewmen, he immediately set to work to save his ship. Gunners continued firing until they were blown overboard or killed. Damage control parties fought the fires until they were burned to death. Dozens of crewmen were later cited for bravery.
By the time the fleet tug USS Tekesta arrived to tow the Newcomb to Karema Retto, she was blasted, burned, and seriously damaged with the remains of one of the kamikazes on her fantail, but still afloat.
The total cost for this one kamikaze attack was seven killed and 34 wounded aboard the Leutze and 40 killed and 24 wounded aboard the Newcomb .The Japanese lost five planes and crews, not counting those shot down before impact. And April 6, 1945, was just beginning. There were still the radar pickets well outside the screen of the main American fleet.
The USS Bush (Commander R.E. Westholm) manned Radar Picket Station Number One with partner USS Calhoun (Commander G.R. Wilson) manning Picket Post Number Two nearby. Both ships were veterans and had fought off kamikaze attacks since April 1. During the morning of April 6, several attacks came in but were beaten off by the two ships.
Shortly after noon, what was described as a “swarm” of Japanese planes directed their attacks on the two ships. A reported 40 to 60 enemy planes attacked both Radar Picket Station Number One and Radar Picket Station Number Three to the east, where the destroyer USS Cassin Young (Commander J.W. Artes, III) was stationed. Like her sister ships, the Cassin Young was a veteran, having already earned two Navy Unit Commendations and she was about to earn a third for her performance during the Okinawa campaign.
By 3 pm the USS Bush had shot down two planes and driven off two more that made runs at her. Then another plane came in low over the water. Commander Westholm opened fire with all guns, including the 5-inch main battery. The plane weaved and dodged, barely keeping above the water as it approached. It struck the Bush between the two smoke stacks amidships, and its bomb exploded in the forward engine room, killing every man there.
Two fire rooms suffered equally. A 4,000-pound engine room blower was hurled so high into the air that it knocked off the ship’s radar antenna. Flooding quickly gave the Bush a 10-degree list, but steam escaping from the fire rooms put out the fires and power was regained using an auxiliary diesel generator.
The Calhoun immediately came up to render assistance, bringing along her own combat air patrol (CAP) for protection. But en route the CAP became heavily involved with many Japanese planes and soon ran out of fuel and ammunition. Although the Bush was dead in the water the crew expected to save her, as her wounds did not appear mortal. But the Japanese had other ideas.
The American destroyer Bush furiously fought off a swarm of kamikazes at Kerama Retto before being sunk on June 6, 1945, with a loss of 87 lives.
Commander Wilson ordered a support vessel, the LCS-64, to close on the USS Bush and rescue injured and wounded crewmembers. As she did so, a flight of 15 enemy planes appeared. Around 5 pmthe enemy flight split up, going for both American ships. Westholm ordered about 150 of the Bush’s crew to go overboard for protection, trailing lines for them to hold on to as the battle began. All guns that were still able to fire opened up on the new attackers.
Meanwhile, the Calhoun opened fire and shot down one enemy plane. Another was set afire by the 5-inch main battery. A third went down to the same fire.
Then, seemingly out of nowhere, a fourth enemy plane was reported off the port bow. Commander Wilson ordered a hard turn to port, but it was too late. The aircraft, already burning, hit the main deck, wiping out two gun crews. The bomb exploded in the after fire room, killing everyone there. Despite the damage, the Calhoun could still steam at about 15 knots.
Just as Commander Wilson was getting the fires under control, three more enemy planes attacked. One was shot down. A second missed and was shot down by fire from the Bush and LCS-84, which had come near. But the third hit the Calhoun at the forward fire room. The bomb destroyed both of the ships’ boilers. The destroyer was now dead in the water. A 4-by-20 foot hole had been blown below the waterline. The ship’s keel was broken. All power and communications were lost.
Immediately the experienced and well-trained crew managed to get the fires under control. Several guns were connected to the gunnery officer using improvised communications. The wounded were treated, and the torpedoes and depth charges were being thrown overboard. Just as this last process started, the sixth attack on the Calhoun began.
Five enemy planes attacked the ship from three directions. With all guns locally trained because of lack of power, it took longer for the gunners to find and fire at their targets. After about two minutes of manual operation a gunner became exhausted from this stress, and relief had to be swift.
One plane was shot down. A second was hit badly but so close that it crashed onto the destroyer, spreading burning gasoline before falling overboard. Its bomb blew another hole in the ship below the waterline. A third plane was also hit and missed the Calhoun but went on toward the Bush and smashed her between the smoke stacks, nearly cutting the destroyer in two.
The men of the Bush in the water came back aboard ship and tried to save her. It was hopeless. A fourth enemy plane then hit her on the port side, starting yet another fire and killing many wounded that were being treated in the ship’s wardroom. Still, the crew fought the fires until the ammunition below began to explode.
Commander Westholm hoped that the fires would burn themselves out, but soon the bow began to settle and there was no option left but to abandon ship, which was done shortly before the ship broke in two and sank at about 6:30 pm.
Eighty-seven officers and men died aboard the Bush, and another 42 were wounded. Landing craft support vessels rescued 246 men.
Meanwhile, Wilson’s Calhoun was still afloat and fighting for her life. Another hit on the pilothouse and port side made little impression because of the serious damage that had already crippled the ship. The support ship, LCS-64, loaded with numerous survivors, had itself been hit and had to withdraw for its own safety.
With no hope of recovering control, Commander Wilson consulted his officers and decided to abandon ship. He requested that the Cassin Young and LCS-84 search the area for Bush survivors. LCS-87 came alongside and removed the survivors of the Calhoun. She was sunk by gunfire from the Cassin Young lost with her were one officer and 34 men. The rest of her crew—295 men including 21 wounded—were rescued.
The agony of April 6 continued, seemingly without pause. Air strikes from both Japan- and Formosa-based planes came in all day long. The destroyer escort USS Witter (Lieutenant George Herrmann) was hit, losing six men. The destroyer-transport USS Daniel T. Griffen (Lt. Cmdr. J.A. Eastwood) was hit by a kamikaze between her two forward turrets and set ablaze. Hours of firefighting put out the blaze at a cost of 13 men killed and 45 wounded, but the ship was saved.
The destroyer USS Howorth (Commander E.S. Burns) was sailing off the north coast guarding the cruiser USS St. Louis (Captain J.B. Griggs) when both came under kamikaze attack. Several planes were shot down, one barely 25 yards astern of the cruiser.
Later, the Howorth was dispatched to the aid of another injured ship. Along the way she came under attack again by two groups of four planes each. Five were splashed by her gunners. The sixth crashed into the main battery director, killing nine men and wounding 14 more. Even as her damage control parties fought to get the fires under control, a seventh plane was shot down. The Howarth managed to make Kerama Retto unaided.
The ship that the Howorth was on its way to aid, the USS Hyman (Commander R.N. Norgaard), had been attacked by four planes while on her way to a picket station off the island of Ie Shima. She shot down three of her attackers, but the fourth crashed into the ship between the stacks at the torpedo tubes. A tremendous explosion, probably the result of torpedoes detonating, flooded the forward engine room, which had to be abandoned.
The destroyer was so severely damaged that the destroyer USS Rooks (Commander J.A. McGoldrick) was detailed to escort her to Kerama Retto. On the way, the ships were again attacked but not hit.
The destroyer escort USS Witter, shown damaged in port, was hit on June 6, 1945, by a suicide plane deemed unrepairable, she was decommissioned.
While on antisubmarine patrol, the USS Purdy (Commander Frank L. Johnson) was ordered to go to the assistance of the destroyer USS Mullany, which had been hit by a kamikaze. She arrived to find the Mullany dead in the water, on fire, and abandoned. Minesweepers were rescuing survivors.
Commander Johnson ordered the destroyer-minesweeper USS Gherardi to stand by then called for a tug. Despite a pessimistic report from the ship’s captain, Johnson decided to save the stricken ship and began salvage operations. Eventually the crew of the Mullany reboarded their ship and managed to get her to Kerama Retto under her own power.
Not far away, a task group of six minesweepers under Lt. Cmdr. W.W. McMillen, covered by the destroyer-minesweepers USS Rodman (Commander W.H. Kirvan) and USS Emmons (Lt. Cmdr. Eugene N. Foss), were sweeping a channel between Iheya Retto and Okinawa when a large formation of Japanese planes appeared overhead.
The first plane dove out of the clouds before being detected and hit the Rodman’s forward deck. A bomb exploded under her superstructure, killing 16 men and wounding 20 more. Just as the crew was getting the Rodman’s fires under control, two more kamikazes smashed into her.
Meanwhile, the Emmons was on the way to aid the Rodman when she came under attack. She continued to circle the Rodman, protecting her as best she could with her own antiaircraft guns. The gunners aboard the Emmons were good at their jobs, and one after the other six enemy planes fell to her fire. A combat air patrol of Marine Corps fighters appeared overhead and knocked down some 20 enemy aircraft, aided by the Emmons.
Despite the Marine pilots pressing their attacks even into the antiaircraft fire of the friendly ships, the Emmons was hit by five kamikazes in a row. Her fantail was blown off, taking her rudder with it. The forward gun was smashed, and a huge hole was blown in her forward deck. Another hit under the bridge on the port side knocked out her combat information center. Flames roared throughout the ship. Men jumped overboard to escape the flames. The last plane strafed the ship, killing crewmembers, then plunged into the already wrecked superstructure.
Fires were everywhere, ammunition was exploding, and Emmons developed a 10-degree list. It appeared to be settling aft. But the sprinkler system worked, as did the engines. A sixth kamikaze was shot down by the guns firing in local control. Some of the fires were brought under control. Then the port engine stopped. The senior surviving officer aboard, Lieutenant J.J. Griffin, the gunnery officer, took command.
Work continued until about 7:30 pm when a huge explosion rocked the ship from the ammunition handling room. Lieutenant Griffin ordered the Emmons abandoned.
Although under strafing fire from the surviving enemy planes, the minesweepers bravely went about the business of rescuing survivors. Attempts by other vessels to salvage her failed, and the Emmons went down under the gunfire of friendly ships.
Lieutenant Commander Foss, who had been burned and then blown overboard, spent more than an hour in the water before being rescued by one of the minesweepers. He was completely blind for two weeks but eventually recovered both sight and health. Eight officers and 53 enlisted sailors were killed or missing, and three more officers later died of wounds. Meanwhile the badly damaged USS Rodman managed to reach Kerama Retto under her own power.
And still the Japanese came. One target they could not ignore was the large accumulation of ammunition and fuel ships that were at anchor in the Kerama roadstead. A large group of enemy planes flew toward this tempting target late in the afternoon.
The attack began when LST-447 (Landing Ship, Tank 447, under Lieutenant Paul J. Schmitz) was returning from delivering cargo to the Okinawa beachhead. As LST-447 approached the roadstead, two enemy planes came at her low over the water. Immediately the LST opened fire and hit the leading enemy plane.
Sailors at their starboard aft battle stations aboard the USS Missouri brace for impact moments before a kamikaze slams into the ship at Okinawa, April 11, 1945. Nearly indestructible, the “Mighty Mo” nevertheless sustained damage and casualties, yet survived to host the surrender ceremonies on September 2, 1945.
This pilot, evidently believing he had run out of luck, kept coming directly into the fire of the LST. Fire streamed from his tail, and more hits from the LST’s machine guns could be seen ripping into the aircraft. Nevertheless, he managed to hit the ship about two feet above the waterline, and his bomb entered the ship and devastated its interior.
Within 10 minutes such fierce fires engulfed the craft that Lieutenant Schmitz passed the word to abandon ship. With a large amount of diesel oil still aboard, LST-447 burned for 24 hours before she sank. Five men were missing and 17 wounded.
The rest of the Japanese aircraft continued on to the Kerama roadstead. An escort carrier (USS Tulagi) and three ammunition ships were moored just inside the southern entrance of the roadstead. The full attention of the Japanese fell upon these sitting ducks.
The first target was the Tulagi, but the pilot changed his mind and swerved to hit the ammunition ship Logan Victory. Another ammunition ship, the Hobbs Victory, managed to get up steam and leave the harbor, but as she did so a kamikaze crashed the after part of her bridge. Both ships were soon abandoned by their merchant crews, although the naval armed guard remained aboard firing at the attackers.
A third ammunition ship, the Navy-manned Las Vegas Victory (Lt. Cmdr. W.F. Lally), was in the process of discharging ammunition from both sides into a landing craft, small (LCS), an LCT, and two landing craft, medium (LCM) when the Japanese appeared. The Las Vegas Victory managed to shoot down one plane that targeted her, and she was not hit. Abandoned by their crews, the other two ammunition ships were total losses. They drifted, burning and exploding, for more than 24 hours after the raid, when they were sunk by gunfire.
Shortly after 5 pm,a group of LSTs delivering supplies to the beachhead was anchored offshore awaiting its turn to land. This group, under Lt. Cmdr. J.R. Keeling, was spotted by the oncoming kamikazes and attacked. LST-739 was the primary target, but she shot down the lead plane 200 yards from the group. In the next 90 minutes, five more were knocked out of the sky by the group and their escort of minesweepers.
Still more attacks came in during the afternoon. The destroyer escort USS Witter, on antisubmarine patrol, was hit at the waterline by a damaged Aichi D3A Type 99 carrier bomber, killing six and wounding another six. The ship made it back to the United States but was decommissioned as unrepairable.
The evening sky is peppered with a flurry of antiaircraft bursts from the U.S. fleet off Kerama Retto, April 6, 1945. The bright flash may be a plane exploding on the water.
The destroyer USS Morris (Lt. Cmdr. R.V. Wheeler) had stood by the Witter only to become a target herself. A Nakajima B5N Type 97 carrier attack bomber hit the ship high on the port side, blew a hole completely through her, and started fires that took more than two hours to control. Despite being repaired and sent home, the ship was declared “neither seaworthy nor habitable” and decommissioned. Thirteen of her crew had died, and another 45 were wounded in the attack.
The destroyer USS Mullany (Lt. Cmdr. A.R. Drea, USN) was hit by a damaged Nakajima Ki 43 Type 1 fighter plane, which crashed between gun mounts 52 and 53, started fires, and set off stored ammunition and depth charges. The ship was abandoned but assistance from a nearby destroyer and minesweeper brought the fires under control. The ship’s crew reboarded and saved her. Another 30 sailors were dead and 36 wounded, and the Mullany could not be repaired before the war ended.
April 6, 1945, continued badly for the Americans. The Rodman was off the northwest coast of Okinawa when another Nakajima Ki 43 Type 1 fighter plane crashed into its port side. A conventional attack landed a bomb near the bridge. Her loss was 16 killed and 20 wounded. She could not be repaired in time to return to the war. Her partner on patrol, Foss’s Emmons, moved to assist and came under attack.
Although Marine Corps fighter pilots knocked down most of the incoming Japanese planes, at least five enemy planes crashed into the Emmons. The ship was abandoned and later sunk by friendly gunfire. Sixty-four of her crew died, and another 71 were wounded. Other attacks damaged the USS Haynsworth (Commander S.N. Tackney) and Royal Navy aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious (Captain C.E. Lambe).
Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner’s staff later calculated that his Task Force 51 off the coast of Okinawa had been attacked by 182 Japanese planes during April 6, 1945. These planes had attacked in 12 distinct groups. Of this total, Admiral Turner credited 55 planes shot down to the combat air patrols, 35 to ships’ antiaircraft fire, while another 24 crashed into U.S. ships. This total of 108 does not include enemy planes shot down by the aircraft and ships of Task Force 38, which was offshore protecting the beachhead at long range. Task Force 38 claimed to have shot down 249 enemy planes on April 6, 1945, including 136 downed over Okinawa.
Sixteen men aboard the battleship USS Maryland were killed and 37 were wounded during kamikaze attacks on April 6 off Kerama Retto.
Although it was usual for each side to exaggerate the losses of the other, particularly in aerial combat, the numbers put forth by the Americans in this day’s battle are not far off. The Japanese themselves admitted that 355 kamikaze planes and 341 conventional bombers were dispatched to Okinawa on April 6, 1945. Of these, none of the kamikazes returned home. There are no Japanese figures on losses for the conventional bombers.
American losses were totaled as three destroyers, an LST, and two ammunition ships sunk with cargos, while 10 other ships were damaged, including eight destroyers, a destroyer escort, and a minelayer. The total losses do not, of course, include ships like the Witter, which survived their attacks but were decommissioned as being unrepairable. The Japanese, on the other hand, reported kills of two battleships, three cruisers and another 50 ships sunk with a further 60 damaged.
The Japanese attacks of April 6 spilled over into the next day. A kamikaze crashed into the battleship USS Maryland (Captain J.D. Wilson), a Pearl Harbor survivor, killing 16 men and wounding 37. The radar picket destroyer USS Bennett (Commander J.N. McDonald) was hit by a kamikaze, killing three and wounding 18. She, too, wound up waiting for repairs at Kerama Retto.
That same morning the destroyer escort USS Wesson (Lt. Cmdr. H. Sears) was screening the fleet near Ie Shima when she was attacked by four enemy planes. The fourth came out of a cloud and exploded into her, starting the expected fires and flooding. Although the Wessonl ost power for a while, she eventually made Kerama Retto under her own power. She lost eight killed and 25 wounded.
Although the kamikaze attacks would never completely stop during the Okinawa campaign, the 19 hours between noon of April 6, 1945, and the following morning worried the American naval commanders. Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, commanding U.S. naval forces, praised his men for their efforts at repelling the Japanese, and was quick to notify his commander in chief, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, that he needed help. The losses in planes and pilots were disturbing, and Spruance was concerned that it could become critical if these attacks continued.
Spruance asked that replacement pilots and planes be expedited to his command even if other obligations in the Pacific had to be reduced accordingly. There was concern that the number of screening ships, destroyers, destroyer escorts, minesweepers, and others, would be dangerously reduced if the attacks continued in such strength. Losses such as those suffered on April 6, 1945, could not be sustained for long.
Men aboard the escort carrier USS Tulagi watch as a kamikaze strikes LST-447 near Okinawa, April 6, 1945. Fortunately, the LST was empty when attacked.
One aspect of Operation Ten-Go that did not particularly disturb the American command was the surface-based kamikaze operation launched in concert with the air strikes. On April 6, the last remaining major warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy set sail for Okinawa. This was the Yamato, the largest battleship in the world at the time. Like her sister ship the Musashi she weighed 62,315 tons with standard load, 69,998 tons fully loaded. The battleship was 863 feet long and 127 feet wide with a draft of 32 feet. She could sail at a speed of 27.5 knots and had a range of over 7,000 nautical miles.
In 1945, the Yamato carried a crew of 3,300. Her greatest threat lay in her armament. She carried the largest weapons ever placed on a battleship, 18.1-inch guns weighing 162 tons and set in triple turrets weighing 2,774 tons. Each gun fired a projectile weighing 3,219 pounds. From these huge guns the Yamato could fire 1.5 rounds per minute.
The Yamato also carried four triple turrets containing 6.1-inch guns, which were intended to augment a weak antiaircraft defense. When these were proven inadequate, two of the turrets were removed. Antiaircraft protection was provided by a dozen 5-inch guns in six twin mounts. There were also two dozen 25mm guns in eight triple mounts and four 13mm machine guns mounted on the bridge tower.
Additional protection was provided by her 16.1-inch-thick vertical and 7.9-inch horizontal armor plate. Theoretically capable of outgunning any ship in the United States Navy, her career thus far had been unremarkable. The Yamato had fought in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, where the Musashi had been sunk by American aircraft. Yamato had sustained only minor damage and made no significant contribution to the battle. Despite taking on 3,000 tons of water and developing a five-degree list, she made it home without difficulty.
The Yamato remained in harbor for the rest of 1944 and into 1945. While in harbor at Kure, on March 19, 1945, she was hit by a single bomb dropped during an American air raid on Japan. Attacks such as this evidently convinced the Japanese that they could not protect the battleship much longer.
Combined with the major attack planned by the Army and Navy Air forces, the surface navy believed that they had to make some contribution to Operation Ten-Go. That contribution was the Yamato and a small fleet of supporting warships.
Grandly titled the Surface Special Attack Force and commanded by Vice Admiral Seiichi Ito, the Yamato (Rear Adm. Kosaku Ariga) set sail on April 6, accompanied by the light cruiser Yahagi (Captain Tameichi Hara) and eight destroyers
The plan was for the ships to attack the American fleet off Okinawa and then to beach themselves and act as an additional artillery battery for the Japanese Army troops on the island. All involved understood that this one-way mission was suicidal. The “fleet” had no air cover and was sailing against an American fleet with dozens of aircraft carriers.
The Japanese warships were quickly spotted by the submarine USS Hackleback (Lt. Cmdr. Frederick E. Janney) off the coast of Kyushu. Steering west-northwest, they left the lighthouse at the southernmost point of Kyushu intending to circle around Task Force 58 and strike Okinawa late on April 7. But with the early warnings of their submarines, the Americans were ready and waiting.
Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher commanded Task Force 58’s Fast Carrier Force. Flying his command flag on the carrier USS Bunker Hill (Captain G.A. Seitz), he had no intention of letting the Japanese get that close to either his fleet or the troops on Okinawa. After receiving two submarine contact reports, he ordered all four of his task groups to a launching position northeast of Okinawa. Search planes began scouring the sea for signs of the approaching Japanese.
Shortly after dawn on April 7, a search plane from the carrier USS Essex (Captain C.W. Wieber) found them southwest of Koshiki Retto. Admiral Spruance contacted Admiral Deyo and said that he could attack if he wished. Eager to be in at the kill, Deyo led a force of six battleships, seven cruisers and 21 destroyers toward the enemy, keeping his ships between the Japanese and Okinawa. As he took off to find the enemy, Deyo received word that the aircraft of Task Force 58 had found the enemy and were attacking.
Admiral Mitscher had not waited for Spruance or Deyo. As soon as he was satisfied that he had the position, speed, and course of the enemy, he began dispatching his aircraft to the enemy’s location. Some 280 aircraft, including 98 torpedo bombers, raced north to strike the enemy.
The Yamato opened fire on them shortly after noon on April 7, but the first two American bombs hit the giant battleship at 12:41 pm, and four minutes later the first torpedo slammed into her hull. For the next two hours the Americans unceasingly attacked the dodging battleship and its consorts. The destroyer Hamakaze was hit early and sank first. Soon after, the light cruiser Yahagi was hit by both bombs and torpedoes and went dead in the water.
Five torpedo hits on the port side of the Yamato caused her to slow and begin flooding. More torpedoes hit, and at least 10 bombs blew apart the upper decks. Wireless signals were lost, and flags had to be used. By mid-afternoon she was reduced to a state of complete confusion with her huge guns inoperable because of the list and only a few antiaircraft guns still firing.
The world’s largest battleship at the time, the Yamato, explodes in a massive cloud after being savagely attacked by U.S. Navy carrier planes north of Okinawa, April 7, 1945.
At 2 pm the final attack began. More bombs and torpedoes hit Yamato. The list increased to 35 degrees, and the ship could not maneuver. Twenty minutes later the deck was nearly vertical and the battle flag was touching the waves. A series of internal explosions began.
Finally, at 2:43 pm, the giant battleship Yamato slid beneath the waves. With her went the Yahagi and the destroyers Isokaze, Hamakaze, Asashimo, and Kasumi. Of the Yamato’s crew of 3,200 officers and men, only 23 officers and 246 men were rescued by the surviving destroyers. Another 446 men were lost aboard the Yahagi. Hundreds more perished aboard the destroyers. American losses were 10 planes and 12 men. It was one of the most lopsided victories in American military history.
In terms of permanent ship losses to the U.S. Navy, April 6-7, 1945, would stand as the worst day in its history. At Pearl Harbor the Navy had permanently lost two battleships (USS Arizona and USS Oklahoma), two destroyers (USS Cassin and Downes), and one auxiliary ship (USS Utah). At Okinawa on April 6-7, 1945, it permanently lost 10 warships. Six of these were sunk outright (Bush, Calhoun, Emmons, LST-447, Hobbs Victory, and Logan Victory). Four other ships (Leutze, Morris, Newcomb, and Witter) were so badly damaged that they could not be repaired and were scuttled or decommissioned. Eight ships, including the Mullany and the Defense, suffered major damage and casualties.
The Essex-class carrier USS Hancock burns after being struck by a Japanese suicide plane off Okinawa, April 7, 1945. A TBM Avenger is visible above the ship. The ship survived.
19 April 1945 - History
In April of 1945, Hitler moved into the Führerbunker, located 50 feet below the Chancellery buildings in Berlin. In this underground complex containing nearly thirty rooms on two separate floors, Hitler held daily briefings with his generals amid reports of the unstoppable Soviet advance into Berlin. He issued frantic orders to defend Berlin with armies that were already wiped out or were making a hasty retreat westward to surrender to the Americans.
On April 22, during a three hour military conference in the bunker, Hitler let loose a hysterical, shrieking denunciation of the Army and the 'universal treason, corruption, lies and failures' of all those who had deserted him. The end had come, Hitler exclaimed, his Reich was a failure and now there was nothing left for him to do but stay in Berlin and fight to the very end.
His staff attempted without success to convince him to escape to the mountains around Berchtesgaden and direct remaining troops and thus prolong the Reich. But Hitler told them his decision was final. He even insisted a public announcement be made.
Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels then brought his entire family, including six young children, to live with Hitler in the bunker. Hitler began sorting through his own papers and selected documents to be burned.
Personnel in the bunker were given permission by Hitler to leave. Most did leave and headed south for the area around Berchtesgaden via a convoy of trucks and planes. Only a handful of Hitler's personal staff remained, including his top aide Martin Bormann, the Goebbels family, SS and military aides, two of Hitler's secretaries, and longtime companion Eva Braun.
On April 23, Hitler's friend and Minister of Armaments, Albert Speer, arrived for his final meeting with the Führer. At this meeting Speer bluntly informed Hitler that he had disobeyed the Führer's scorched earth policy and had preserved German factories and industry for the post-war period. Hitler listened in silence and had no particular reaction, much to the surprise of Speer.
That afternoon, Hitler received a surprise telegram from Göring who had already reached safety in Berchtesgaden.
In view of your decision to remain in the fortress of Berlin, do you agree that I take over at once the total leadership of the Reich, with full freedom of action at home and abroad as your deputy, in accordance with your decree of June 29, 1941? If no reply is received by 10 o'clock tonight, I shall take it for granted that you have lost your freedom of action, and shall consider the conditions of your decree as fulfilled, and shall act for the best interests of our country and our people. You know what I feel for you in this gravest hour of my life. Words fail me to express myself. May God protect you, and speed you quickly here in spite of all.
An angry Hitler, prompted by Bormann, sent Göring a return message saying he had committed "high treason." Although the penalty for this was death, Göring was to be spared, due to his long years of service, if he would immediately resign all of his offices. Bormann then transmitted an order to the SS near Berchtesgaden to arrest Göring and his staff. Before dawn on April 25, Göring was locked up.
The next day, April 26, Soviet artillery fire made the first direct hits on the Chancellery buildings and grounds directly above the Führerbunker. That evening, a small plane containing female test pilot Hanna Reitsch and Luftwaffe General Ritter von Greim landed in the street near the bunker following a daring flight in which Greim had been wounded in the foot by Soviet ground fire.
Once inside the Führerbunker the wounded Greim was informed by Hitler he was to be Göring's successor, promoted to Field-Marshal in command of the Luftwaffe.
Although a telegram could have accomplished this, Hitler had insisted Greim appear in person to receive his commission. But now, due to his wounded foot, Greim would be bedridden for three days in the bunker.
On the night of April 27, Soviet bombardment of the Chancellery buildings reached its peak with numerous direct hits. Hitler sent frantic telegrams to Keitel demanding Berlin be relieved by (now non-existent) armies.
The final blow came on the 28th when Hitler received word via Goebbels' Propaganda Ministry that British news services were reporting SS Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler had sought negotiations with the Allies and had even offered to surrender German armies in the west to Eisenhower.
According to eyewitnesses in the bunker, Hitler "raged like a madman" with a ferocity never seen before. Himmler had been with Hitler since the beginning and had earned the nickname "der treue Heinrich" (faithful Heinrich) through years of fanatical, murderous service to his Führer, who now ordered Himmler's arrest.
As an act of immediate revenge, Hitler ordered Himmler's personal representative in the bunker, SS Lt. Gen. Hermann Fegelein, who was also the husband of Eva Braun's sister, to be taken up to the Chancellery garden above the bunker and shot.
Now, with the desertions of Göring and Himmler and the Soviets advancing deep into Berlin, Hitler began preparing for his own death.
Late in the evening of the 28th he dictated his last will and a two-part political testament (shown below) in which he expressed many of the same sentiments he had stated in Mein Kampf back in 1923-24. He essentially blamed the Jews for everything, including the Second World War. He also made a reference to his 1939 threat against the Jews along with a veiled reference to the subsequent gas chambers.
"I further left no one in doubt that this time not only would millions of children of Europe's Aryan people die of hunger, not only would millions of grown men suffer death, and not only hundreds of thousands of women and children be burnt and bombed to death in the towns, without the real criminal having to atone for this guilt, even if by more humane means."
Just before midnight, he married Eva Braun in a brief civil ceremony. There was then a celebration of the marriage in his private suite. Champagne was brought out and those left in the bunker listened to Hitler reminisce about better days gone by. Hitler concluded, however, that death would be a release for him after the recent betrayal of his oldest friends and supporters.
By the afternoon of April 29, Soviet ground forces were about a mile away from the Führerbunker. Inside the bunker the last news from the outside world told of the downfall and death of Mussolini, who had been captured by Italian partisans, executed, then hung upside down and thrown into the gutter.
Hitler now readied himself for the end by first having his poison tested on his favorite dog, Blondi. He also handed poison capsules to his female secretaries while apologizing that he did not have better parting gifts to give them. The capsules were for them to use if the Soviets stormed the bunker.
About 2:30 in the morning of April 30, Hitler came out of his private quarters into a dining area for a farewell with staff members. With glazed eyes, he shook hands in silence, then retired back into his quarters. Following Hitler's departure, those officers and staff members mulled over the significance of what they had just witnessed. The tremendous tension of preceding days seemed to suddenly evaporate with the realization that the end of Hitler was near. A lighthearted mood surfaced, followed by spontaneous displays of merry-making even including dancing.
At noon, Hitler attended his last military situation conference and was told the Soviets were just a block away. At 2 p.m., Hitler sat down and had his last meal, a vegetarian lunch. His chauffeur was then ordered to deliver 200 liters of gasoline to the Chancellery garden.
Hitler and his wife Eva then bid a final farewell to Bormann, Goebbels, Generals Krebs and Burgdorf, other remaining military aides and staff members.
Hitler and his wife then went back into their private quarters while Bormann and Goebbels remained quietly nearby. Several moments later a gunshot was heard. After waiting a few moments, at 3:30 p.m., Bormann and Goebbels entered and found the body of Hitler sprawled on the sofa, dripping with blood from a gunshot to his right temple. Eva Braun had died from swallowing poison.
As Soviet shells exploded nearby, the bodies were carried up to the Chancellery garden, doused with gasoline and burned while Bormann and Goebbels stood by and gave a final Nazi salute. Over the next three hours the bodies were repeatedly doused with gasoline. The charred remains were then swept into a canvas, placed into a shell crater and buried.
Back inside the bunker, with the Führer now gone, everyone began smoking, a practice Hitler had generally forbidden in his presence. They next began collectively plotting daring (but fruitless) escapes out of Berlin to avoid capture by the Soviets.
On the following day, May 1, Goebbels and his wife proceeded to poison their six young children in the bunker, then went up into the Chancellery garden where they were shot in the back of the head at their request by an SS man. Their bodies were then burned, but were only partially destroyed and were not buried. Their macabre remains were discovered by the Soviets the next day and filmed, the charred body of Goebbels becoming an often seen image symbolizing of the legacy of Hitler's Reich.
The Last Will of Adolf Hitler
As I did not consider that I could take responsibility, during the years of struggle, of contracting a marriage, I have now decided, before the closing of my earthly career, to take as my wife that girl who, after many years of faithful friendship, entered, of her own free will, the practically besieged town in order to share her destiny with me. At her own desire she goes as my wife with me into death. It will compensate us for what we both lost through my work in the service of my people.
What I possess belongs - in so far as it has any value - to the Party. Should this no longer exist, to the State should the State also be destroyed, no further decision of mine is necessary.
My paintings, in the collections which I have bought in the course of years, have never been collected for private purposes, but only for the extension of a gallery in my home town of Linz on Donau.
It is my most sincere wish that this bequest may be duly executed.
I nominate as my Executor my most faithful Party comrade,
He is given full legal authority to make all decisions.
He is permitted to take out everything that has a sentimental value or is necessary for the maintenance of a modest simple life, for my brothers and sisters, also above all for the mother of my wife and my faithful co-workers who are well known to him, principally my old Secretaries Frau Winter etc. who have for many years aided me by their work.
I myself and my wife - in order to escape the disgrace of deposition or capitulation - choose death. It is our wish to be burnt immediately on the spot where I have carried out the greatest part of my daily work in the course of a twelve years' service to my people.
Given in Berlin, 29th April 1945, 4:00 A.M .
[Signed] A. Hitler
Dr. Joseph Goebbels
Colonel Nicholaus von Below
First Part of the Political Testament
More than thirty years have now passed since I in 1914 made my modest contribution as a volunteer in the First World War that was forced upon the Reich.
In these three decades I have been actuated solely by love and loyalty to my people in all my thoughts, acts, and life. They gave me the strength to make the most difficult decisions which have ever confronted mortal man. I have spent my time, my working strength, and my health in these three decades.
It is untrue that I or anyone else in Germany wanted the war in 1939. It was desired and instigated exclusively by those international statesmen who were either of Jewish descent or worked for Jewish interests. I have made too many offers for the control and limitation of armaments, which posterity will not for all time be able to disregard for the responsibility for the outbreak of this war to be laid on me. I have further never wished that after the first fatal world war a second against England, or even against America, should break out. Centuries will pass away, but out of the ruins of our towns and monuments the hatred against those finally responsible whom we have to thank for everything, International Jewry and its helpers, will grow.
Three days before the outbreak of the German-Polish war I again proposed to the British ambassador in Berlin a solution to the German-Polish problem - similar to that in the case of the Saar district, under international control. This offer also cannot be denied. It was only rejected because the leading circles in English politics wanted the war, partly on account of the business hoped for and partly under influence of propaganda organized by International Jewry.
I have also made it quite plain that, if the nations of Europe are again to be regarded as mere shares to be bought and sold by these international conspirators in money and finance, then that race, Jewry, which is the real criminal of this murderous struggle, will be saddled with the responsibility. I further left no one in doubt that this time not only would millions of children of Europe's Aryan people die of hunger, not only would millions of grown men suffer death, and not only hundreds of thousands of women and children be burnt and bombed to death in the towns, without the real criminal having to atone for this guilt, even if by more humane means.
After six years of war, which in spite of all setbacks, will go down one day in history as the most glorious and valiant demonstration of a nation's life purpose, I cannot forsake the city which is the capital of this Reich. As our forces are too small to make any further stand against the enemy attack at this place and since our resistance is gradually being weakened by men who are as deluded as they are lacking in initiative, I should like, by remaining in this town, to share my fate with those, the millions of others, who have also taken upon themselves to do so. Moreover I do not wish to fall into the hands of an enemy who requires a new spectacle organized by the Jews for the amusement of their hysterical masses.
I have decided therefore to remain in Berlin and there of my own free will to choose death at the moment when I believe the position of the Führer and Chancellor itself can no longer be held.
I die with a joyful heart, aware of the immeasurable deeds and achievements of our soldiers at the front, our women at home, the achievements of our farmers and workers and the work, unique in history, of our youth who bear my name.
That from the bottom of my heart I express my thanks to you all, is just as self-evident as my wish that you should, because of that, on no account give up the struggle, but rather continue it against the enemies of the Fatherland, no matter where, true to the creed of a great Clausewitz. From the sacrifice of our soldiers and from my own unity with them unto death, will in any case spring up in the history of Germany, the seed of a radiant renaissance of the National Socialist movement and thus of the realization of a true community of nations.
Many of the most courageous men and women have decided to unite their lives with mine until the very last. I have begged and finally ordered them not to do this, but to take part in the further battle of the Nation. I beg the heads of the Armies, the Navy and the Air Force to strengthen by all possible means the spirit of resistance of our soldiers in the National Socialist sense, with special reference to the fact that also I myself, as founder and creator of this movement, have preferred death to cowardly abdication or even capitulation.
May it, at some future time, become part of the code of honor of German Army officers - as is already the case in our Navy - that the surrender of a district or of a town is impossible, and that above all commanders must march ahead as shining examples, faithfully fulfilling their duty unto death.
Second Part of the Political Testament
Before my death I expel the former Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring from the party and deprive him of all rights which he may enjoy by virtue of the decree of June 29th, 1941 and also by virtue of my statement in the Reichstag on September 1st, 1939, I appoint in his place Grossadmiral Dönitz, President of the Reich and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.
Before my death I expel the former Reichsführer-SS and Minister of the Interior, Heinrich Himmler, from the party and from all offices of State. In his stead I appoint Gauleiter Karl Hanke as Reichsführer-SS and Chief of the German Police, and Gauleiter Paul Giesler as Reich Minister of the Interior.
Göring and Himmler, quite apart from their disloyalty to my person, have done immeasurable harm to the country and the whole nation by secret negotiations with the enemy, which they have conducted without my knowledge and against my wishes, and by illegally attempting to seize power in the State for themselves. [Hitler then names the members of the new government].
Although a number of men, such as Martin Bormann, Dr. Goebbels, etc., together with their wives, have joined me of their own free will and did not wish to leave the capital of the Reich under any circumstances, but were willing to perish with me here, I must nevertheless ask them to obey my request, and in this case set the interests of the nation above their own feelings. By their work and loyalty as comrades they will be just as close to me after death, as I hope that my spirit will linger among them and always go with them. Let them be hard but never unjust, but above all let them never allow fear to influence their actions, and set the honor of the nation above everything in the world. Finally, let them be conscious of the fact that our task, that of continuing the building of a National Socialist State, represents the work of the coming centuries, which places every single person under an obligation always to serve the common interest and to subordinate his own advantage to this end. I demand of all Germans, all National Socialists, men, women and all the men of the Armed Forces, that they be faithful and obedient unto death to the new government and its President.
Above all I charge the leaders of the nation and those under them to scrupulous observance of the laws of race and to merciless opposition to the universal poisoner of all peoples, International Jewry.
Given in Berlin, this 29th day of April 1945, 4:00 A.M .
Dr. Joseph Goebbels Wilhelm Burgdorf
Martin Bormann Hans Krebs
Original text Copyright © 1997 The History Place™ All Rights Reserved
OOB LVI. Pz.Korps, 19 April 1945
Post by Werter » 02 Dec 2010, 13:55
On the map LageOstWeichsel19Apr1945 is OOB of LVI. Pz.Korps on 19 April 1945.
11. Pz.Gr.Div. Nordland
KGr ID Berlin
Under this record there are some lines that I can not consider. It seems to me that there is written:
Pz.Gr.Rgt. 1234 (part of PGD Kurmark . )
Someone who has this map on a larger scale tell me what is written in these lines.
PS I would ask the owners of the collection of maps of the HGr Weichsel help in compiling the table of changes in OOB LVI. Panzer-Korps day-by-day for the period from April 14 to May 2, 1945.
Re: OOB LVI. Pz.Korps, 19 April 1945
Post by Werter » 02 Dec 2010, 18:34
From the Tissin's book, we can conclude that the PGreg 1234 actually became a part of IDivision 309 (Berlin). Spaeter said that the KG of Kurmark Division took part in battles in Berlin.
RADIO IN 1945
As 1945 began, World War II was still raging on, but at least there was some hopeful news -- in mid January, American forces liberated the Philippines. As the year progressed, there would be other news that was not so hopeful, shocking news of concentration camps in Europe, and sad news about the death of President Roosevelt. But on a day to day basis, what was probably on your mind was wondering how the boys overseas were doing -- it seemed that just about everyone had some family member fighting the Nazis. (There were even some women in the military, although not in combat roles -- the WACS and the WAVES had become much more accepted, and many young women signed up to help their country. The 12 March issue of Time magazine featured a cover story about some of these women, especially Captain Mildred McAfee of the U.S. Naval Reserves.)
Americans were still dealing with the effects of rationing -- you couldn't even buy a new car, since most companies had shut down their assembly lines during the war. Even the magazines were affected, since paper was also limited, and magazines were being asked by the War Production Board to conserve. A few magazines went from weeklies to monthlies, and some ceased publication, but there was still plenty to read. Among the most popular were Time and Newsweek, but you also enjoyed Life, Reader's Digest, Look (movie star Rita Hayworth made the cover in early March), Coronet, and Saturday Evening Post. Movie fans loved Photoplay (there was an interesting article about Judy Garland in the April issue) Radio Mirror had added the word "television" to its title, but it was still mostly about radio stars and celebrity gossip. There was Downbeat for fans of jazz and big band music: you could always find interesting stories about the performers. In January, the tragic disappearance of Glenn Miller's plane on a flight from England to Paris was still front page news, as his fans hoped for the best but on a more cheerful note, the great Duke Ellington gave a very impressive concert, including several new songs, and the critics were eagerly awaiting some new recordings from him. Downbeat also offered lots of photographs of talented performers -- and a weekly cover photo of a popular star, such as Frances Langford or Peggy Mann. Another must-read for music fans was Song Hits, which provided the lyrics to all the songs you loved, and also had plenty of pictures of the people who performed them. African-Americans had an important new feature magazine, as Chicago-based publisher John H. Johnson put out Ebony and the members of the Armed Forces were probably reading Stars and Stripes.
With so many men fighting overseas, women still made up a large part of the work-force, and you could find them in many non-traditional jobs: in media, for example, there were quite a few all-female radio stations, since most of the male announcers had been drafted. Interestingly, despite stereotypes about what the female gender was incapable of learning, a number of women who had been ham radio operators were quickly trained to be radio engineers, and they kept the stations on the air throughout the war. A few women even became war correspondents, reporting from the scene of some of the fiercest battles and keeping people informed about how the troops were doing. The Boston Globe hired British journalist Iris Carpenter, who travelled with the 3 rd Armored Division and wrote compelling stories about what she saw. And you may have read May Craig's commentary -- she wrote for the Gannett newspapers -- or Eleanor Packard's war reports -- she was a correspondent for United Press. The best known of the female radio commentators, Dorothy Thompson, only did an occasional broadcast by this time, but she still wrote articles for various magazines. Several women print reporters tried to get on the air doing news, but they encountered considerable opposition from the men at the networks-- among the men opposed to women doing broadcast news was the legendary Edward R. Murrow. (If you want to read more about the changing roles of women in media, my recently published book, Invisible Stars : A Social History of Women in American Broadcasting goes into much greater detail.) As for popular broadcast journalists, in addition to Murrow and his colleagues Eric Sevareid and Bob Trout, pioneer newsman H.V. Kaltenborn (who had first done radio news in 1921) was still on the air. In print, one of the most respected war correspondents, Ernie Pyle, lost his life in August when he was hit by Japanese gunfire as he covered the fighting in the South Pacific he was one of fifteen journalists killed that year. Another popular journalist was cartoonist Bill Mauldin, whose depictions of the typical "dogface soldiers" Joe and Willie, won him a Pulitzer prize Life Magazine did an article about him in early February.
As the war dragged on, you tried to find ways to keep your mind occupied, while waiting for news from your soldier or sailor. It was a good time to be a sports fan -- despite the fact that many players were now fighting overseas, there was still a pennant race, and it was an exciting one in 1945. Star players like Mel Ott of the New York Giants made the cover of Time magazine in early July, and in late September, fan favorite Hank Greenberg hit a dramatic home run -- on the final day of the season -- to win the pennant for the Detroit Tigers. But as I said earlier, women were working in some non-traditional occupations, and baseball was no exception. In 1945, the The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League continued to develop a loyal following. It was founded in 1943 by Phil Wrigley, and in 1945, you were reading about some of its best players in a 4 June feature article in Life Magazine. (Speaking of baseball, few people realized that behind the scenes, a major social change was about to occur: Brooklyn Dodgers General Manager Branch Rickey was working on a way to end segregation in his sport, and in August, he met with a young African-American athlete named Jackie Robinson, who was playing in the Negro Leagues at that time. By late October, Rickey had signed Robinson to a contract, and soon after, baseball history would be made.)
But baseball wasn't the only diversion of course, there was music, and 1945 was a good year for it. If you liked that up-and-coming singer Frank Sinatra, you heard him in late January on the Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy Show on NBC (sponsored by Chase & Sanborn coffee) he also had a number of hits, including "Saturday Night is the Loneliest Night of the Week", and "Dream" -- and if that song sounded familiar, it had first been the closing theme for Johnny Mercer's radio show on NBC. Among the other big hits, the Andrews Sisters did very well with "Rum and Coca Cola" bandleader Les Brown had two number one songs, "Sentimental Journey" and "My Dreams Are Getting Better All the Time", and Stan Kenton had a huge hit with "Tampico". Also popular in early to mid 1945 were Johnny Mercer with "Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive", and Ella Fitzgerald teamed up with the Ink Spots to do "I'm Beginning to See the Light". Jo Stafford, who also sang with the Pied Pipers, had her first big hit in May, with "Candy", and Perry Como had several hits -- for Perry, his first #1 song came in August with "Till the End of Time". But nothing cheered people up more than comedy, and Spike Jones was on the charts in 1945 with "Chloe" (who could forget that immortal line, "Where are you, you old bat"?) and a great parody of "Cocktails for Two".
You continued to depend on radio as it got you through the Depression, so it helped you through the war. In April 1945, a new show went on the air on Mutual "Queen for a Day" was a big hit with the female audience, and a few years later, it became a popular TV show. Also new in 1945 were several detective shows, "Philo Vance", starring Jose Ferrer, and "Hercule Poirot", based on the well-known Agatha Christie murder mysteries and the crime drama "This is Your FBI" also made its debut. And New York radio fans got an unexpected bonus: in July, when there was a newspaper strike, Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia went on the air and read the comic strips so people wouldn't have to miss their favorite. Later, in October 1945, an important news show began: "Meet the Press", which would eventually go on to a long and successful career on TV. Throughout the year, the established programs such as "Fibber McGee and Molly" and the "Bob Hope Show" continued to get good ratings. You could still hear many radio stars who had been around for a long time, such as Eddie Cantor (assisted by Bert Gordon and announcer Harry Von Zell) and Jack Benny -- in 1945, you were enjoying the talented Mel Blanc doing several character voices, but of course there were still Mary Livingstone and the much loved Rochester. Arthur Godfrey finally got his own network series, "Arthur Godfrey Time" on CBS beginning in April. And the Armed Forces Radio Service was making sure the GIs overseas got their share of excellent entertainment: "Command Performance" featured such stars as Bing Crosby, Dinah Shore, Judy Garland, and Jimmy Durante, all of whom donated their time to help the war effort. And on 14 June, what had once been the NBC Blue Network officially became known as ABC under its new owner, Edward J. Noble (who had bought it in 1943 and operated it as the "Blue Network" till now).
A milestone was reached at the Miss America pageant, when Bess Myerson became the first Jewish winner unfortunately, during her reign, she experienced a number of anti-Semitic incidents. This was especially ironic given that 1945 was the year the world learnt about the death camps and the murder of millions of Jews, as the Allies liberated the camps and news reporters, Edward R. Murrow among them, gave on the scene accounts. Americans were shocked at the brutality of the Nazis, and commentators remarked upon how tolerance is an essential American value. As if to reinforce that point, Frank Sinatra made a short film called "The House I Live In", in which he spoke out and sang about the need for all Americans to accept each other's race, religion, and ethnicity. Today, that seems rather obvious, but in 1945, it needed to be said, in a country that was still racially segregated, where a Jewish Miss America was sometimes treated rudely, and where Japanese-Americans were still in internment camps. Sinatra made his statement eloquently, and the film won a special Academy Award.
There were many big news stories in the first few months of 1945 -- in addition to the liberation of the concentration camps starting in January, there was the Yalta Conference in early February (attended by President Roosevelt, along with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin).
Later in February, the Marines were victorious at Iwo Jima, commemorated by an award-winning photograph of them raising the American flag. And then, on 12 April, President Roosevelt died of a cerebral hemorrhage. He was only 63, and his death touched millions. Radio stations dropped all commercials for several days, people wept in the streets as the funeral cortege passed, and suddenly Vice President Harry S. Truman found himself President of the United States. Ironically, two of the other protagonists in the war drama also died in April -- Italy's Benito Mussolini was executed and Germany's Adolph Hitler committed suicide. After that, Germany finally surrendered on 8 May it would take until 15 August for the Japanese to surrender, after two devastating atomic bombs destroyed the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The formal surrender ceremony occurred on September 2 the war was finally over. America was caught up in a massive celebration -- the troops could finally come home and life could return to some semblance of normal again.
Overlooked in the initial euphoria was the fact that black soldiers, who had fought valiantly overseas, were coming back to a still-segregated America. Having defended American values like freedom and democracy against Nazi tyranny, many returning soldiers would become frustrated at being denied equal rights at home. Radio had been very reticent to discuss America's racial divide, even on news programs and while certain black performers like Duke Ellington and Ella Fitzgerald had gained mass appeal, by and large, radio was still a mainly white industry. The few black characters on the air were usually typecast as servants, and frequently not very intelligent or honest servants. Jack Benny's black valet Eddie "Rochester" Anderson, had a role that was somewhat more respectfully done than most -- he and Benny often engaged in repartee, and Rochester could give as good as he got--but Rochester still fit most of the stereotypes. In 1945, you seldom if ever heard a black announcer on the network, although in a small but growing number of cities, there were local stations with black announcers. And in one new CBS show, "Beulah", the black maid was not black at all, and not even a woman -- the role was played by a white man, Marlin Hurt. As for black dramatic actors, they seldom found any challenging roles. One welcome exception was a theater company founded in Harlem in 1940: in 1945, New York's WNEW began airing some of the productions of this critically acclaimed group, the American Negro Theater among the performers whose careers started there were Sidney Poitier and Harry Belafonte.
Also overlooked when the war ended was what would happen to the many women who had worked in every industry, including broadcasting. Before the war, companies required them to sign agreements which stated that once the men came back, the women would simply resign from their jobs. In our modern world, it is doubtful that such a transition would have occurred without protests and lawsuits, but in late 1945, most women accepted it and left without much of a fight. Magazine ads that had shown a confident "Rosie the Riveter" were about to be replaced by a smiling housewife, extolling the joys of having the perfect home. In radio, the change must have been very noticeable -- where stations had relied on women reporters, writers, and announcers during the war, now nearly all of those women were replaced by men. To be fair, the women of the 40s were probably willing to let the man have their jobs back -- the idea of a "career woman" was not common in that era, and society's expectation was that women should be homemakers or do volunteer, charitable work. Some surveys showed that a large number of women wished they could have continued working, even part-time, but already the marriage rate was skyrocketing, as returning soldiers married their sweethearts, and the national conversation turned to having a home and raising a family.
But while 1945 showed signs of potential social change, that was not on most people's minds. What had affected nearly everyone's life had been rationing. On 15 September, much of it finally came to an end -- first, rationing of gasoline and fuel oil ended, and so did those 35 m.p.h. speed limits then on 30 October, came the end of shoe rationing. As each item gradually was restored (and many people couldn't wait to buy a new car after all this time without one), a new optimism pervaded the culture. Not only was the war over, but so were the many little inconveniences. There were new toys to invent, new games to play, and of course there were movies to see. In November 1945, the first Slinky was demonstrated it had been created by Richard James, a Philadelphia engineer, and his wife Betty had come up with the name. Other new inventions in 1945 included one from New Hampshire's Earl S. Tupper, who created food storage containers which came to be known as "Tupperware". And although you couldn't buy one yet, a Raytheon engineer named Percy Spencer invented what became the microwave oven. Ballpoint pens were big sellers in 1945, as the new and improved models didn't tear the paper and contained plenty of ink also catching on was something we today call "frozen foods" -- back then, the best-known brand, Birdseye, called the product "frosted foods" and popular singer Dinah Shore appeared in magazine advertisements doing testimonials about how convenient these items were. And speaking of advertising, in 1945 you heard a lot of radio ads from Procter & Gamble Co., which according to Broadcasting magazine, spent around $11 million for commercial time.
You probably were not that much aware of some of the new technology, but 1945 was the year the first electronic computer was built (it was completed in November). ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer) was a huge machine with 17,468 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors, 1,500 relays, and 6,000 manual switches.
Computer terminology was developing too: a Navy engineer, Grace Murray Hopper, was working in the computer laboratory at Harvard when she found that the reason one machine wasn't working was that a moth had flown into a relay this gave birth to the term "computer bug", a term commonly used to explain any glitch in a computer's programming. And while some people say the story is a legend, the Navy has a display that commemorate Admiral Hopper's many achievements, and it contains her log book from August 1945, with the moth taped to a page and a note explaining where it had been found. And as for other technological advances, we moved much closer to having TV available to everyone when in October, the FCC lifted the wartime ban on opening new television stations or manufacturing equipment. But there were still only nine TV stations on the air, and about 7,000 people had TV sets. WNBT in New York was one of the earliest, and it did numerous demonstrations with department store retailers, in the hopes that more people would purchase televisions. However, TV had a way to go before the average person would be familiar with it -- in fact, George Gallup was conducting a poll to find out how many people had ever heard of TV or had ever seen a demonstration.
Movies were still what most people preferred in 1945, and the biggest box office hit was probably "The Bells of St. Mary's", starring Bing Crosby and Ingrid Bergman it made $21.3 million. Other popular movies included "State Fair" (which included the hit song "It Might as Well Be Spring"), and "Anchors Aweigh" -- the first movie Frank Sinatra did in color. "The Lost Weekend" won an Academy Award for Best Picture, and Ray Milland was named Best Actor for his realistic portrayal of alcoholism in that movie. Joan Crawford won Best Actress for her role in "Mildred Pierce". As for books, 1945 was the year George Orwell wrote "Animal Farm". And in theater, you may have seen Tennessee Williams' outstanding drama, "The Glass Menagerie on Broadway.
If you were working at the average job in 1945, the minimum wage was now boosted to 40 cents an hour. You could buy a gallon of milk for about 62 cents and a loaf of bread was 9 cents. A new car, however, was around $1,000, although some luxury cars, like the Cadillac, could cost as much as $2500. Meanwhile, efforts were made to get Congress to pass an Equal Pay for Equal Work bill, but to no avail. (It would not pass till 1963.) And now it can be told: the popular graffitti that servicemen (and many other people) wrote everywhere, "Kilroy was Here" was named for an inspector of rivets at the Fore River Shipyard in Quincy MA -- and yes, there really was a (James) Kilroy.
The year ended with the Irving Berlin classic "White Christmas" at #1 on the charts sung by Bing Crosby, it would sell millions world-wide. The many Sinatra fans were happy that, just like the year had begun with their hero making a guest appearance on radio, the year concluded the same way, as Frank sang his hit "Nancy With the Laughing Face" on the Ginny Simms show. The United States agreed to join the United Nations, the annual Army-Navy football game ended with Army victorious (President Truman attended, and according to Time, he rooted for Army) and those who celebrated Christmas had a difficult time finding any holly (not because of rationing -- but because of bad weather in those states where most of it was grown). Meanwhile, the kids all wanted to go see that Disney movie "Pinocchio" -- it was in technicolor and featured the hit song "When You Wish Upon a Star". And as America greeted the new year, the Baby Boom was about to start, and it would change society in ways few people could predict.
Table of Contents
1. Historiography of the Problem 2. Non-Aggression Pact or Neutrality Pact? 3. Matsuoka's Negotiations in Moscow, Signing and Evaluation of the Neutrality Pact 4. Germany's Attack on the USSR and Japan's Position 5. Japan's Pearl Harbour Attack and the Neutrality Pact 6. The Neutrality Pact during Japan's Period of Success in the East Asian War 1941-42 7. Implementing the Neutrality Pact, 1943 to mid 1944: Problems and Achievements 8. The Last Year of the USSR's War with Germany 9. The Denunciation of the Neutrality Pact 10. Japan Seeks Soviet Mediation, May-July 1945 11. The USSR joins the War against Japan Afterword. Endnotes
A history of anti-Asian racism
Up until the eve of the COVID-19 crisis, the prevailing narrative about Asian Americans was one of the model minority.
The model minority concept, developed during and after World War II, posits that Asian Americans were the ideal immigrants of color to the United States due to their economic success.
But in the United States, Asian Americans have long been considered as a threat to a nation that promoted a whites-only immigration policy. They were called a “yellow peril”: unclean and unfit for citizenship in America.
In the late 19th century, white nativists spread xenophobic propaganda about Chinese uncleanliness in San Francisco. This fueled the passage of the infamous Chinese Exclusion Act, the first law in the United States that barred immigration solely based on race. Initially, the act placed a 10-year moratorium on all Chinese migration.
In the early 20th century, American officials in the Philippines, then a formal colony of the U.S., denigrated Filipinos for their supposedly unclean and uncivilized bodies. Colonial officers and doctors identified two enemies: Filipino insurgents against American rule, and “tropical diseases” festering in native bodies. By pointing to Filipinos’ political and medical unruliness, these officials justified continued U.S. colonial rule in the islands.
On February 19, 1942, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 to incarcerate people under suspicion as enemies to inland internment camps.
While the order also affected German- and Italian-Americans on the East Coast, the vast majority of those incarcerated in 1942 were of Japanese descent. Many of them were naturalized citizens, second- and third-generation Americans. Internees who fought in the celebrated 442nd Regiment were coerced by the United States military to prove their loyalty to a country that locked them up simply for being Japanese.
In the 21st century, even the most “multicultural” North American cities, like my hometown of Toronto, Canada, are hotbeds for virulent racism. During the 2003 SARS outbreak, Toronto saw a rise of anti-Asian racism, much like that of today.
In her 2008 study, sociologist Carrianne Leung highlights the everyday racism against Chinese and Filipina health care workers in the years that followed the SARS crisis. While publicly celebrated for their work in hospitals and other health facilities, these women found themselves fearing for their lives on their way home.
No expression of patriotism – not even being front-line workers in a pandemic – makes Asian migrants immune to racism.
19 April 1945 - History
On 23 April 1945, Bayern Munich defeated 1860 Munich 3-2 in what turned out to be the last recorded match in the Third Reich.
When Hitler's National Socialist German Workers' Party came to power in 1933, the new regime quickly expanded its control into all areas of German society, including football. The Nazis appointed party member Hans von Tschammer und Osten as the country's Reichssportsführer, placing him in charge of all German sports, including the nation's football teams.
As part of the new Third Reich, the football clubs were required to purge all Jews from their ranks. Thus, in 1933, Bayern's Jewish president, Kurt Landauer (pictured), was forced to resign. He later spent two months in a concentration camp, but escaped Germany in 1939 and fled to Switzerland. In 1940, Bayern visited Landauer in Switzerland as a show of support. He returned to Bayern in 1947. Between 1913 and 1951, he spent approximately 18 years as Bayern's president, giving him the club's longest tenure in that office. There is a street named after him in the Munich suburb of Friemann.
On 2 May 1945, nine days after Bayern's victory over 1860 Munich, Germany unconditionally surrendered, officially ending the Third Reich.
Aeronautics and Astronautics Chronology, 1945-1949
January 20: Robert T. Jones, NACA Langley aeronautical scientist, formulated sweptback-wing concept to overcome shockwave effects at critical Mach numbers, and verified it in wind-tunnel experiments in March 1945 prior to learning of parallel German work. It was subsequently checked by the wing-flow technique before the first NACA report was issued in June.
January 24: Germans successfully launched A-9, a winged prototype of the first ICBM (the A-10) designed to reach North America. A-9 reached a peak altitude of nearly 50 miles and a maximum speed of 2,700 mph.
During January: JNW created Guided Missiles Committee to formulate broad program of research and development in the guided missiles field, the committee to consist of two members from OSRD, one from NACA, three from the Army, and three from the Navy.
During January: German Luftwaffe formed special squadron of 16 Me-262 jet fighters, each armed with twenty-four 55-mm high-explosive rockets, which operated with high success against Allied bomber formations.
February 20: The Secretary of War approved Ordnance plans for the establishment of the White Sands Proving Ground (WSPG).
During February: Project Nike initiated by Army Ordnance with the Western Electric Co. to explore a new air defense system against high-speed and high altitude bombers beyond the reach of conventional artillery.
---: AAF contracted with Bell for construction of three transonic flight research aircraft, to be powered by liquid rocket engines. Aircraft designated XS-1, and later X-1.
March 8: Navy rocket-powered Gorgon air-to-air missile launched from PBY-5A in first powered test flight off Cape May, N.J.
March 21: Navy initiated development of the Lark surface-to-air guided missile in BuAer contract with Fairchild Aircraft.
During March: "Summary of Airfoil Data," by Ira H. Abbott, A. E. von Doenhoff, and Louis Stievers of NACA Langley Laboratory, was issued, which was considered a classic reference summarizing NACA data on airfoil sections.
---: Project Paperclip to recruit German missile scientists was initiated in the Pentagon.
During Spring: Supplemental appropriation passed by Congress authorized expanded research on guided missiles at NACA Langley Laboratory, including establishment of a rocket launch facility at Wallops Island, Va.
April 1-13: 17 JPL Private F rockets were fired at Hueco Range, Fort Bliss, Tex.
During April: Aberdeen Proving Ground wind-tunnel tests of sweptback wing at Mach 1.72 carried out on the suggestion of Theodore van Kármán.
May 5: Russian ground forces occupied Peenemünde, Germany.
May 8: World War II ended in Europe.
---: At time of German collapse, more than 20,000 V-weapons, V-1's and V-2's had been fired. Although figures vary, best estimate is that 1,115 V-2 ballistic rockets had been successfully fired against England and 1,675 against continental targets. Great disparity between production figures and operational missions due to fact that series production and eveloment testing were performed concurrently, there being as many as 12 major modifications in basic design features.
May 10: Crash program to counter Japanese Baka (suicide) bomb, Naval Aircraft Modification Unit was authorized to develop Little Joe, ship-to-air missile powered with standard JATO unit.
During May: Boeing began development of Gapa (ground-to-air pilotless aircraft) antiaircraft missile for USAAF. Within 2 years 37 Gapa missiles had been fired and by October 1949 a total of 102 successful firings had taken place.
June 19: Dr. Frank L. Wattendorf, Engineering Division, Wright Field, and a member of AAF Scientific Advisory Group, recommended to Brig. Gen. F.O. Carroll, Chief, Engineering Division, that an Air Force Development Center, including facilities for development of supersonic aircraft and missiles, be built on a location away from Wright Field and near a large source of power.
June 25: Construction began at White Sands Proving Ground.
During June: Army Ground Forces Equipment Review Board concluded that increased emphasis should be placed on development of guided missiles.
---: XC-99, cargo version of B-36, made first flight.
July 4: Baby Wac rocket, one-fifth scale model of Wac Corporal proposal, flight tested at Camp Irwin by JPL.
---: First rocket launch at NACA's new Wallops Island facility for calibration of radar instrumentation.
July 13: White Sands Proving Ground (WSPG) was activated.
July 14: AAF A-20's from Hollandia set fire to Japanese oil fields at Boela, Ceram, in the first use of rocket bombs in the Southwest Pacific.
July 16: First test atomic devise exploded in New Mexico.
July 20: Navy Little Joe antiaircraft missile made two successful flights at Applied Physics Laboratory test station at Island Beach, N.J.
July 23: Life published drawings of a manned space station as envisioned by the German rocket scientists of Peenemünde.
During July: First launching of a two-stage rocket-propelled research model, the Tiamat missile, which employed six rockets as boosters, had automatic stabilization, its maneuvers were programed, and its testing was the first research program of the NACA's Wallops Island Station.
August 6: First atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima.
August 9: Second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
August 14: World War II ended with Japanese surrender.
---: Team of American scientists was dispatched to Europe to collect information and equipment relating to German rocket progress.
August 24: First successful use of a telemetry system in a rocket-propelled flight research model, the two-stage Tiamat at NACA Wallops Island, Va.
During August: First successful U.S. chemical gas, generator-driven, turbopump fed, regeneratively cooled rocket engine (XCALT-6000), delivered to AAF by Aerojet-General Corp.
---: Components for approximately 100 V-2 ballistic missiles were shipped from Germany to White Sands Proving Ground.
---: Joint Army-Navy Aeronautical Board established Research Committee to investigate and report on matters affecting research, development, and testing of aircraft, including liaison with NACA and industry, and to recommend action to foster aeronautical research and development.
September 8: William F. Durand, one of the original members of the NACA in 1915, retired.
September 20: First flight of airplane powered by propeller-turbine engines, made in England by experimental Gloster Meteor powered with Rolls Royce Trent-engines with five-bladed propellers.
September 26: The Navy publicly demonstrated the Ryan Fireball FR-1 at NAS Anacostia, the first propeller-and-jet-powered airplane designed for aircraft carriers.
---: Army Wac Corporal, first development flight, fired at White Sands, established U.S. record of 43.5 miles height, and was the first U.S. liquid-propellant rocket developed with Government funds (constructed by Douglas and Aerojet under JPL Project).
During September: First volume of the Toward New Horizons reports of the Army Air Forces Scientific Advisory Group (headed by Von Kármán), entitled Science: The Key to Air Supremacy, was submitted to the Commanding General of the AAF. These reports prepared by leading scientists are classic in their assessment of future developments emerging out of World War II advancements.
October 3: A Navy Committee for Evaluating the Feasibility of Space Rocketry (CEFSR) was established by BuAer. In November 1945, CEFSR recommended high priority for satellite development and estimated cost between $5 and $8 million.
October 11: First launch of full Wac Corporal (WAC-A) at WSPG attained an altitude of 235,000 feet.
October 18: NACA Langley's Pilotless Aircraft Research Division (PARD) launched the first successful drag research vehicle for wing and body research, forerunner of a large series of flight tests of various wings and bodies in a combination of transonic and supersonic speeds providing basic design information later applied on all later supersonic aircraft and missiles.
October 30: Chief of Army Ordnance invited Secretary of the Navy to utilize the White Sands Proving Ground (WSPG) as a test range for naval-guided missiles (BuOrd) and for pilotless aircraft (BuAer).
During October: Secretary of War Patterson approved plan to bring top German scientists to United States to aid military research and development. Small group of German rocket specialists brought to United States under Project Paperclip to work on missile development at Fort Bliss and White Sands Proving Ground.
---: Navy BuOrd established Guided Missiles, Jet Propulsion and Counter-measures Section in its Research and Development Division.
November 6: The first jet landing on an aircraft carrier was made by Ens. Jake C. West, USN, in an FR-1 Navy turbojet and conventional reciprocating-engine fighter.
November 7: Bell Aircraft Corp. announced successful test flights of a jet-propelled P-59 by remote control television was used to read the instruments.
During November: Guided Missiles Committee of the Joint Committee on New Weapons and Equipment (JNW) drafted Dewey Report on "A National Program for Guided Missiles."
December 3: The first USAAF jet fighter unit, the 412th Fighter Group, received its first Lockheed P-80 aircraft at March Field, Calif.
December 9: First Stratovision flight test made at Middle River, Md., by Westinghouse Electric Corp. and Glenn L. Martin Co. Telecasts were made from the airplane flying in the stratosphere.
December 14: AAF contracted with Bell for development of three supersonic flight research aircraft, powered by liquid rockets. Designated XS-2, and later X-2.
December 17: Rocket-Sonde Research Branch constituted in Naval Research Laboratory to conduct scientific exploration of the upper atmosphere.
December 19: President Truman submitted his plan to Congress for the unification of the armed services.
During December: Office of Deputy Chief of Air Staff for Research and Development created in Hq. USAAF, headed by Maj. Gen. C. E. LeMay.
---: More than 100 German rocket scientists and engineers, who had agreed to come to the United States under Project Paperclip, arrived at Fort Bliss, Tex.
---: Navy BuAer awarded contract to Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at Cal Tech to conduct research whose findings were to be used in formulating policy for a projected high-altitude earth satellite vehicle.
During 1945: Abe Silverstein of Lewis Laboratory made basic application of ramjet technology to the problem of afterburner design, leading to the first full-scale afterburner tests.
---: New wind tunnels placed under construction at NACA's Ames Laboratory at Moffett Field, Langley Laboratory at Hampton, Va., and Propulsion Laboratory at Cleveland, to attain speeds of 1,400, 1,800, and 2,600 mph with sized throats.
---: German Heinkel He-162 Salamander or "Volksjaeger" jet fighter appeared operationally, while the prototype of a heavy jet bomber appeared in the Junkers Ju-287 (four-engine) with auxiliary take-off rockets, sweptforward wings, speed over 550 mph, and bomb load of 8,800 pounds.
End of 1945: Increase in speed of recipricating-engined fighter aircraft by 300 to 400 mph between World War I and World War II (speed being only one military criterion) was estimated to be 75 percent gain because of increased horsepower, 25 percent from aerodynamic improvement.
---: Dr. Jerome C. Hunsaker pointed out that U.S. aeronautical research effort during World War II was based upon short-range policy of about 90 percent for specific development problems applied to help win the war and 10 percent on basic research to gain needed knowledge. The national research effort has "concentrated on the improvement of aircraft in the production program."
January 2: Special investigation of high temperature aluminium alloys begun by J. C. McGee, Wright Field engineer, which led by June 1947 to useful alloy known as "ML," named after the Materials Laboratory.
January 10: An Army R-5, demonstrated by C. A. Moeller and D. D. Viner, set an unofficial world helicopter record by climbing to 21,000 feet at Stratford, Conn.
January 16: U.S. upper atmosphere research program initiated with captured German V-2 rockets. A V-2 panel of representatives of various interested agencies was created, and a total of more than 60 V-2's were fired before the supply ran out. The Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University then undertook to develop a medium-altitude rocket, the Aerobee, while the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) directed its efforts to the development of a large high-altitude rocket, first called the Neptune, later the Viking.
January 19: First glide flight of AAF-NACA XS-1 rocket research airplane (No.1 of the original three X-1's built), by Jack Woolams, Bell Aircraft test pilot, at Pinecastle Army Air Base, Fla.
January 26: Army announced creation by AAF of the First Experimental Guided Missiles Group to develop and test rocket missiles at Eglin Field, Fla.
---: Naval Aviation Ordnance Test Station was established at NAAS Chincoteague to develop aviation ordnance and guided missiles.
During January: First missile launched at Naval Air Facility, Point Mugu, Calif., a KVW-1 Loon, USN name for AAF robot bomb (JB-2) modeled on the German V-1.
February 3: Development of a plane with automatic devices to preset takeoff, flight, and landing, with the pilot doing nothing except monitoring the equipment, disclosed by AAF.
February 19: S. Paul Johnston appointed Director of the IAS to replace Lester D. Gardner, retiring after 15 years of service.
March 7: BuAer Committee for Evaluating the Feasibility of Space Rocketry (CEFSR) held joint meeting with AAF representatives to work out joint satellite development program based on BuAer proposal. Nothing resulted until a subsequent Project Rand report and Navy CEFSR proposal were presented to RDB, Committee on Guided Missiles, Technical Evaluation Group in March 1948.
March 11: First successful operation of afterburner at altitude conditions in America, in Lewis Altitude Wind Tunnel, and reported by Fleming and Dietz.
March 12: Chief of Naval Operations directed that Glomb, Gorgon II-C, and Little Joe guided missiles be discontinued and that Gargoyle, Gorgon II-A, and Dove be limited to test and research vehicles. He directed that Loon be continued as a possible interim weapon, the Bat be completed, and the Kingfisher, Bumblebee, and Lark be continued as high-priority missile developments.
March 15: First American-assembled V-2 static fired at White Sands Proving Ground.
March 22: First American rocket to escape earth's atmosphere, the JPL-Ordnance Wac, reached 50-mile height after launch from WSPG.
During March: Fleet Adm. William D. Leahy sent memorandum to the Secretaries of the War and Navy Departments on a national program for development of guided missiles.
---: AAF established Project Rand as separate department of Douglas Aircraft Co. plant at Santa Monica, Calif., to study supersonic aircraft, missiles, and earth satellites.
---: Navy successfully flight tested XSAM Talos surface-to-air guided missile.
---: USAAF established initial program on ballistic missile defense, a contract for study of interceptor weapon to cope with V-2-type missiles. In April a second contractor began study of defense against true ICBM.
April 1: Bell Aircraft Corp. contracted with AAF (under Project MX-776) to produce a 100-mile guided missile (later designated the Rascal).
April 16: First flight test of American-assembled V-2 rocket launched by the Army at White Sands Proving Ground, N. Mex. In July firings, Missiles Nos. 5 and 9 set new altitude records of slightly over 100 miles, while Missile 17 set velocity record of 3,600 mph.
April 17: Army Ground Forces submitted to the Guided Missile Committee a summary of its program on antiaircraft, assault, antiship, air-launched close support, and long-range strategic guided missiles.
April 19: Project MX-774 inaugurated by AAF with Consolidated-Vultee to study rocket capabilities with an ICBM as a final objective.
April 22: Glenn L. Martin Co. contracted with the AAF to produce (under Project MX-771) a surface-to-surface guided missile (later designated the Matador).
---: U.S. Weather Bureau in cooperation with Army, Navy, NACA, Air Transport Association, and several universities, began series of flights into thunderstorms with pilotless P-61 "Black Widows" and piloted sailplanes to obtain scientific data.
May 8: Chief of Naval Operations directed BuAer to make preliminary investigation of earth satellite vehicle, such an investigation to "contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field of guided missiles, communications, meteorology, and other technical fields with military applications."
May 16: AAF established an Institute of Technology at Wright Field to graduate 350 officers annually.
May 17: Original design and development of Aerobee sounding rocket begun when contract was given to Aerojet Engineering Corp.
---: First flight of Douglas XB-43, light jet-propelled bomber.
May 28: AAF initiated study of use of atomic propulsion for aircraft, Project NEPA.
May 29: War Department Equipment Board concluded in its report that missiles would play a prominent role in future warfare. It established requirements for seven types of missiles, including a strategic ground-to-ground missile for use at ranges from 150 to several thousand miles.
June 6: Joint Army-Navy Research and Development Board created for purpose of coordinating all activities of joint interest in fields of aeronautics, atomic energy, electronics, geographical exploration, geophysical sciences, and guided missiles.
June 14: Navy established Naval Ordnance Missile Test Center at WSPG.
June 17: First meeting of the AAF Scientific Advisory Board met in the Pentagon, chaired by Theodore von Kármán.
June 19: NACA Langley's PARD launched first successful control-surface research vehicle at Wallps Island for evaluating controllability with a roll rate transmitter and Doppler radar.
---: AAF contracted with Sverdrup & Parcel, Inc., for study utility and cost requirements, and site surveys for both an AAF Air Engineering Development Center, and a NACA National Scientific Research Center.
June 24: Office of Naval Research approved program for high-altitude manned flight, Project Helios, based upon concept presented by Jean Piccard in February for using clustered plastic balloons.
During June: First U.S. airborne infrared tests by USAAF.
July 6: Antiaircraft and Guided Missile Center Activated at Fort Bliss, Tex.
July 9: Subcommittee of the Guided Missiles Committee of the JCS recommended that location be sought for a long-range missile proving ground.
July 21: First U.S. all turbojet to operate from an aircraft carrier, a McDonnell XFD-1 "Phantom" from the U.S.S. Franklin D. Roosevelt.
August 2: National Air Museum was established under the Smithsonian Institution by act of Congress.
August 6: Two unmanned B-17 drones flown from Hilo, Hawaii, to Muroc, Calif.
August 8: First flight of the XB-36, the development of which had begun in 1941.
August 17: Sergeant Lambert of Wright Field, Ohio, became the first person in the United States to be ejected from an airplane by means of emergency escape equipment (ejected from a P-61 airplane traveling 302 miles per hour at an altitutde of 7,800 feet).
August 26: Army Ground Forces informed Chief of Staff that development of certain missiles had reached a point where an assignment of operational responsibility was possible.
September 17: Experimental booster for Nike R&D system first tested at WSPG.
September 30: 13 engineers, instrument technicians, and technical observers were ordered TDY from Langley Laboratory to the Air Force test facility at Muroc, Calif., to assist in the X-1 flight research program. Named as the NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit, this group under Walter Williams was the origin of the NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards, Calif.
October 1: Naval Air Missile Test Center, Point Mugu, Calif., was established to conduct tests and evaluations of guided missiles and components.
---: Navy Lockheed PV-2, Truculent Turtle, set a record of nonstop long-distance flight, completing an 11,236-mile trip from Perth, Australia, to Columbus, Ohio, in 55 hours 15 minutes.
October 7: First of three XS-1 (later X-1) rocket research airplanes moved from Bell Aircraft's Niagara Falls plant to Muroc, Calif.
October 11: First glide flight of XS-1 (No. 2) by Chalmers Goodlin, Bell test pilot, at Muroc, Calif.
October 24: V-2 rocket No. 13 launched from WSPG carried camera which took motion pictures of the earth at approximately 65 miles altitude (pictures covered 40,000 square miles.) Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab experiment.
During October: Army Ordnance initiated Bumper Project for development leading to a two-stage rocket test vehicle, which resulted in use of JPL WAC Corporal as second stage of a V-2.
During Fall: Reaction Motors began design and development of rocket engine for the Navy Viking sounding rocket.
During November: First snow from a natural cloud produced by V. Schaefer of General Electric, the experiment carried out by means of dry-ice pellets dropped from a plane over Greylock Mountain, Mass.
December 8: First successful powered (RMI XLR-11 rocket engine) flight of an XS-1, flown by Chalmers Goodlin, Bell test pilot, reached a speed of 550 mph. This was first U.S. aircraft designed for supersonic speeds.
December 17: Space biological research program was initiated at Holloman AFB, N. Mex., by the National Institutes of Health.
---: Velocity and altitude record for single-stage rocket (3,600 mph and 116 miles altitude) made by V-2 at WSPG.
During 1946: Signal Corps by radio-echo transmissions between the Earth and the Moon, proved radio transmission across space was feasible with moderate power.
---: Jet Propulsion Laboratory under Army Ordnance contract developed the field of solid-propellant rocketry such as castable propellants, case bonding techniques, and radial burning techniques.
---: Daniel Guggenheim Medal for 1946 awarded to Frank Whittle for development of jet propulsion engines.
---: Program of transonic and hypersonic free-flight research on ramjet and rocket-propelled test vehicles launched from piloted aircraft inaugurated at NACA Lewis Laboratory.
---: Commandant of the School of Aviation Medicine, Col. H. G. Armstrong, and the AAF Air Surgeon, Brig. Gen. M. C. Grow, proposed establishment of aeromedical center for research and teaching.
---: Office of Naval Research contracted with General Mills for construction of a cluster of 100 plastic balloons for high altitude atmosphere research (Project Helios).
During 1946-47: Transonic bump technique¾using floor- or wall-mounted airfoil surface in subsonic wind tunnel to get transonic flow¾developed in 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NACA Langley Laboratory. A similar development was conducted by Lockheed in the California Cooperative Tunnel during the same period. This technique was a logical step from the earlier wing-flow technique developed by the Langley Flight Research Division, and it permitted testing in the range of Mach numbers from low subsonic to Mach 1.2 until the slotted-throat transonic tunnel was developed and put into operation at Langely 2 years later.
January 8: First experimental operation of model slotted-throat wind tunnel. Langley Laboratory's Ray H. Wright, working theoretically, and Vernon G. Ward, working experimentally with a parasite tunnel attached to the Langley 16-foot high-speed tunnel, collaborated in an effort that resulted in establishment of transonic flow with the use of longitudinal slots in the walls of the throat of a conventional subsonic tunnel. Known as the slotted-throat technique, first major installation was made in the Langley 8-foot subsonic high-speed tunnel in December 1949, a breakthrough in wind tunnel technique.
January 23: Telemetry operated successfully in a V-2 firing at WSPG, Army Ordnance's Hermes telemetry system.
February 5: President Truman directed that production of nuclear weapons continue, following the recommendations of the AEC and the Secretaries of War and Navy.
February 12: Navy Loon launched from submarine Cusk at Point Mugu, first launching of a guided missile from a submarine.
February 17: Wac Corporal (WAC-B), fired from WSPG, attained an altitude of 240,000 feet.
February 20: First of a series of V-2 firings (No. 20) known as Blossom Project, tested ejection of canister and its recovery by parachute, containing fruit flies and various types of seeds exposed to cosmic rays.
March 4: Air operations in the Antarctic known as Operation Highjump ended. From December 24, 1946, Navy PBM's and R4D's logged 650 hours in photographic mapping of 1,500,000 square miles of the interior and 5,500 miles of the coastline, the equivalent of about half the area of the United States and its entire coastline.
March 6: First four-engine jet bomber, the XB-45 built by North American, made first test flight at Muroc, Calif., with George Krebs as pilot. Its engines were arranged in pairs in single nacelles in each wing.
March 7: USN V-2 flight from WSPG took first photograph at 100-mile altitude.
During March: First test flights of plastic balloons conducted by General Mills at Minneapolis, Minn., for ONR Project Helios.
---: AAF transferred facilities for testing guided missiles from Wendover Field in Utah and Tonopah in Nevada, to Alamogordo Field (subsequently renamed Holloman AFB) in New Mexico.
April 15: First flight of Douglas D-558-I research airplane successful, Gene May, Douglas test pilot, as pilot. Airplane developed was a Navy-NACA project and three were built.
April 24: French Government established rocket test range at Colomb Bechar, Algeria.
April 25: NACA Langley's PARD launched its first rocket-propelled model of a complete airplane for performance evaluation (AF XF-91), at Wallops Island. This was followed by flight tests of models of practically all Air Force and Navy supersonic airplanes.
April 30: Standard system of designating guided missiles and assigning popular names was adopted by the Army and Navy. Basic designation adopted was two-letter combination of the three letters A (Air), S (Surface), U (Underwater), the first letter indicating origin of missile, the second letter its objective, to be followed by the letter "M" for missile. Thus a surface-to-air missile was designated "SAM."
During April: First Deacon rocket launched at Wallops Island, which achieved a velocity of 4,200 feet per second.
May 21: NACA Langley Laboratory demonstrated practically noiseless airplane with five-bladed propellor and muffled exhaust.
May 27: Army Corporal E, first U.S. surface-to-surface ballistic guided missile, was fired with results exceeding expectations (a JPL project).
May 29: V-2 impacted 11/2 miles south of Juarez, Mexico, resulting in new safety measures at WSPG.
June 5: First AAF research balloon launch (a cluster of rubber balloons) at Holloman, by New York University team under contract with Air Material Command.
June 17: Princeton University started construction of 4,000-mph wind tunnel.
June 19: World speed record regained by United States when P-80R flown by Col. Albert Boyd attained 623.8 mph at Muroc, Calif.
June 30: In meeting at Wright-Patterson, AAF and NACA representatives agreed to divide responsibilities for X-1 flight testing: AF exploit maximum performance in a few flights NACA acquire detailed research information.
July 1: Contract with Convair for MX-774 "Upper Air Test Vehicle," predecessor of the Atlas ICBM, was cancelled by the AAF.
July 3: Start of polyethylene balloon operations at Holloman, a 10-balloon cluster launched by New York University staff with a payload of less than 50 pounds, which reached an altitude of 18,500 feet.
July 9: Subsonic ramjet engine successfully flown in Navy Gorgon IV (PTV-2) in 28-minute flight test at Naval Air Missile Test Center.
July 18: President Truman designated a five-man Air Policy Committee, with Thomas K. Finletter of New York as Chairman, to submit by 1 January 1948 a broad plan to give the United States the "greatest possible benefits from aviation."
July 26: President Truman signed the Armed Forces Unification Act, creating a Department of the Air Force, coequal with Army and Navy, and creating a National Military Establishment under the Secretary of Defense. Stuart Symington sworn in as USAF Secretary and activities transferred to USAF effective 18 September, 1947.
During July: USAF relinquished responsibility for Army's missile program and Army assigned primary responsibility for it to Ordnance.
---: Soviet MiG-15 first flew but engine performance was unsatisfactory, a problem solved with purchase of 55 British Derwent V and Nene (4,500-pound thrust) engines, first placed in series production, then improved with the RD-45 engine (5,000-pound thrust) and the VK-1 (6,000-pound thrust) engine.
August 1-3: Boeing B-29 set a new official world "distance in a closed-circuit record" with a flight of 8,854.308 miles, Lt. Col. O. P. Lassiter as pilot.
August 8: A. L. Berger of Wright Field received the Thurman H. Bane Award for 1947 for work in developing new types of high-temperature ceramic coatings for use in aircraft engines.
August 16: Physicist Martin Pomerantz announced at Swarthmore College that he had sent a flight of four free balloons, carrying cosmic ray equipment, to a record height of at least 127,000 feet.
August 20: Comdr. T. Caldwell (USN) flew the Douglas D-558-I (No. 1) Sky-streak, powered by a General Electric TG-180 turbojet, to a new world's speed record of 640.7 mph. Five days later Maj. Marion Carl, USMC, added another 10 mph flying D-558-I (No. 2).
August 22: Dr. Hugh L. Dryden appointed Director of Aeronautical Research of the NACA, replacing Dr. George W. Lewis.
September 2-6: First Joint Technical Sessions by the royal Aeronautical Society, Great Britain, and the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, held in London.
September 6: German V-2 rocket launched from U.S. aircraft carrier Midway in Atlantic tests, exploding prematurely after a 6-mile flight.
September 22: Air Force C-54 completed first transatlantic robot-controlled flight from Stephenville, Newfoundland, to Brize Norton, England, a distance of 2,400 miles.
September 25: First flight under ONR Project Skyhook, an unmanned plastic balloon, from St. Coud, Minn.
---: First successful firing of Applied Physics Laboratory Aerobee research rocket at White Sands Proving Ground.
September 26: Maj. Gen. William E. Kepner, was named chief of the new atomic energy division of the USAF.
September 30: Research and Development Board (RDB) of DOD superseded Joint Research and Development Board, with Vannevar Bush named as Chairman.
During September: After completing studies, Project Rand reported that earth satellites were technically feasible.
October 1: First flight of the North American XF-86 Sabre Jet, classic sweptwing USAF fighter aircraft until the Century series.
October 9: General Electric engineers obtained first carefully instrumented heat-transfer data from supersonic flight when V-2 fired from WSPG attained 3,400 mph.
October 10: U.S. Patent Office issued patent on the Norden bombsight, which Carl L. Norden had applied for 17 years earlier.
October 14: The first supersonic flight in manned aircraft in level or climbing flight was made by Capt. Charles E. Yeager (USAF) at Muroc, Calif., in a rocket-powered NACA-USAF research plane, Bell XS-1, later the X-1 (M=1.06).
October 30: Dr. H. J. E. Reid, Engineer-in-Charge of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory (1926-60), received the Medal of Merit from President Truman for wartime contributions to American airpower.
During October: Committee on Guided Missiles of RDB assigned responsibility for coordinating work on earth satellite program which had been conducted independently by each of the military services.
November 14: First complete Aerobee rocket was fired to a height of 190,000 feet from White Sands Proving Ground, N. Mex.
November 15: Air Force disclosed that the world's first ramjet helicopter, the McDonnell Flying Bike, had been successfully flown for 6 months.
November 26: First successful hypersonic-flow wind tunnel (11 inch) placed into operation at March 7 at Langley Laboratory.
November 28: Norton Sound was assigned to Operational Development Force for use as an experimental rocket-firing ship, alterations initiated at Naval Shipyard at Philadelphia in March 1948, and completed October 1, 1948.
December 10: Lt. Col. John P. Stapp (USAF MC), made his first rocket-propelled research sled ride.
December 17: USAF Boeing XB-47 Stratojet made first flight from Seattle to Moses Lake, first medium turbojet bomber and the first with engines (six) mounted on pylons.
December 23: Invention of transitor. (Smith, NYT 12/12/72, 45) see Master.
During 1947: USAF SAM initiated study of ecological conditions on other planets.
---: During a Politburo meeting reviewing the problem of developing an intercontinental ballistic missile, Premier Joseph Stalin reportedly stated that a transatlantic rocket capable of hitting New York City "would make it easier to talk with the gentleman-shopkeeper, Harry Truman, and keep him pinned down where we want him." This probably reflected the high priority accorded large rocket development in the U.S.S.R. at this time.
January 1: President's Finletter Commission submitted its comprehensive report entitled "Survival in the Air Age."
January 4: University of California announced completion of pilot model for low-pressure supersonic wind tunnel, while NACA Ames Aeronautical Laboratory placed its low-density wind tunnel into operation about this time.
January 12: Northrop Aircraft Co. announced that rocket-powered test vehicles at Muroc Air Base, Calif., had attained a speed of 1,019 mph.
January 15: Gen. H. S. Vandenberg, Vice Chief of Staff, USAF, approved policy calling for development of earth satellite components and the initiation of satellite development at the proper time.
January 30: Orville Wright died in Dayton, Ohio, at the age of 76, thus ending his 28 years as a member of the NACA. In his lifetime, the speed of the airplane had been increased from 0 mph to almost 1,000 mph.
February 4: First flight of reseach airplane Douglas D-558-II (No. 1), John Martin of Douglas as pilot. Airplane had both jet and rocket engines and was flown from ground takeoff.
February 6: Successful electronic flight control exercised on V-2 launch to a 70-mile altitude at White Sands, N. Mex., by General Electric technicians for Army Ordnance.
March 4: NACA's Flight Research Division pilot, Herbert H. Hoover, became the first civilian to fly supersonic, in the XS-1 (No. 2) at Muroc, Calif.
March 6: ONR Aerobee sounding rocket attained an altitude of 78 miles.
March 11-14: Key West Agreement formulated by military service chiefs which delineated respective service roles and missions. It did not clearly assign military aeronautical and rocket research and development responsibilities to the services.
March 18: V-2 Upper Atmosphere Research Panel, representing all U.S. interested agencies, was renamed the Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel.
March 29: Technical Evaluation Group of the RDB, Guided Missiles Committee, after reviewing Navy CEFSR and USAF Project Rand satellite proposals, stated that "neither the Navy nor the USAF has as yet established either a military or a scientific utility commensurate with the presently expected cost of a satellite vehicle. However, the question of utility deserves further study and examination."
May 2: The Navy announced successful testing of a submarine capable of firing guided missiles.
May 3: Howard C. Lilly killed in takeoff of D-588-I (No. 2) research airplane at Muroc, the fist NACA test pilot killed in line of duty.
May 13: Two-stage Bumper-Wac fired at WSPG, the V-2 first stage reaching 70 miles and the Wac Corporal 79-mile altitude.
May 23: Army dedicated a continuous wind tunnel capable of 3,000 mph at Aberdeen, Md.
May 26: First North American NATIV missile launched at WSPG.
June 10: Air Force confirmed repeated attainment of supersonic speeds by X-1 (formerly XS-1) flown by Capt. C. E. Yeager.
June 26: Berlin airlift began, which continued until September 30, 1949, although the Russians ended their blockade of the city on May 12, 1949. 2,343,000 tons of supplies were airlifted on 277,000 flights.
During June: William H. Phillips of the Langley Flight Research Division published NACA report (TN-1627) which contained theoretical prediction of the then-not-recognized problem of roll coupling (sometimes referred to as "inertial coupling"). This phenomenon was to plague future high-speed aircraft with short wings and long fuselages, and almost 9 years passed before aerodynamicists were to use Phillips' theory to explain inertial coupling troubles.
During June: Bell Laboratories announced invention of the transistor of the point-contact type.
July 13: First Convair MX-774 (RTV-A-2) test rocket was successfully launched, first demonstrating use of gimballed engines and design features later incorporated in the Atlas ICBM. This was the first of three Convair-sponsored test flights.
July 26: Two separate rockets fired from White Sands, one a V-2 which reached an altitude of 60.3 miles, the other a Navy Aerobee which reached an altitude of 70 miles, carried cameras which photographed the curvature of the earth.
During August: Northrop F-89 Scorpion, an all-weather jet fighter with electronic intercept and fire control begun in 1946, first flew.
September 1: An XR-82 photographed a 2,700-mile strip of the United States from coast to coast in a single flight, using 390 individual frames and 325 feet of film.
September 5: Navy JRM-2 Caroline Mars carried a 68,282-pound cargo from Patuxent River, Md., to Cleveland, the heaviest payload ever lifted by an aircraft.
September 15: Committee on Guided Missiles of the Research and Development Board approved recommendation that Army Hermes project "be given the task of providing the National Military Establishment with a continuing analysis of the long-range rocket problem as an expansion of their task on an earth satellite vehicle."
---: A world speed record of 671 mph set by Maj. Richard L. Johnson, USAF, in F-86A at Muroc, Calif.
September 27: Second Corvair MX-774 test rocket fired.
September 28: An Army Signal Corps unmanned balloon, released at Belmar, N.J., set a 140,000-foot altitude record.
---: NACA Flight Propulsion Research Laboratory in Cleveland was redesignated the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, in memory of Dr. George W. Lewis who died on July 12, 1948.
September 30: Third Bumper-Wac launch from WSPG, the V-2 reaching 93.4 miles, the Wac-Corporal not firing.
During September: Delta-wing Convair XF-92 first flew, the precursor of the F-102A.
October 13: First launching of a rocket-propelled "flying wind tunnel" model by NACA Langley's PARD at Wallops Island, to measure roll damping of wings at transonic speeds.
October 19: Photographs of the earth's surface taken from altitudes between 60 and 70 miles by cameras installed in rockets, were released by the Navy.
October 31: The Air Force revealed the use of ramjet engines for the first time on piloted aircraft, a modified F-80.
November 4: USAF announced formation of the Rand Corp., successor to Project Rand, to assemble most advanced scientific, technical, industrial, and military knowledge available and bring it to bear on major Air Force decisions.
November 10-12: The first symposium on aeromedical problems of space travel was held at the School of Aviation Medicine, San Antonio, Tex.
November 22: The Wright Kitty Hawk airplane arrived at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., after 20 years in the South Kensington Museum, London.
November 30: Curtiss-Wright demonstrated its new reversible-pitch propellers which enabled a C-54 to make a controlled descent from 15,000 to 1,000 feet in 1 minute 22 seconds.
December 2: Third Convair MX-774 test missile successfully fired.
December 11: Secretary of Defense established Weapons Systems Evaluation Group.
December 13: Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson directed a review of military missile programs, under the aegis of Air Force Secretary Stuart Symington.
December 14: Jet Propulsion Centers established at Princeton University and the California Institute of Technology by the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation to provide research facilities and graduate training for qualified young scientists and engineers in rocketry and astronautics. Robert H. Goddard Chairs were established at each center.
December 16: First flight of tailless X-4 (No. 1) research airplane completed, Northrop test pilot Charles Tucker as pilot. Two X-4's were built by Northrop and some 60 research flights were made by NACA at Muroc with the X-4 (No. 2) after about a dozen Air Force flights.
December 29: The first report of the Secretary of Defense, James Forrestal, reported that the United States had been engaged in research on an earth satellite. The Report of the Executive Secretary of the Research and Development Board, contained as an appendix, stated: "The Earth Satellite Vehicle Program, which was being carried out independently by each military service, was assigned to the Committee on Guided Missiles for coordination."
During 1948: First turboprop airliner flown, the Vickers Viscount.
---: Human Centrifuge became operational at Aero Medical Laboratory at Wright Field.
January 7: X-1, flown by Capt. Charles E. Yeager, climbed 23,000 feet after launch at record rate of 13,000 feet per minute, at Muroc.
January 11: First launching of a rocket model employing known but nonaerodynamic torque from canted rocket nozzles, for determining damping in roll of wings, at NACA's Wallops Island, Va.
January 26: First guided-missile test ship, U.S.S. Norton Sound, launched its first missile, a Loon, off NAMTC, Point Mugu, Calif.
During January: Army established formal requirement for a surface-to-air missile system to combat ballistic missiles.
February 9: The Department of Space Medicine was established at the School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph AFB, Tex.
February 24: An Army JPL Bumper-Wac two-stage rocket (a Wac Corporal mounted on a V-2 first stage) attained a record altitude of 244 miles and record speed of 5,150 miles per hour over White Sands, N. Mex., yielding information about ion densities in the F-region of the ionosphere.
March 2: At Carswell Air Force Base, Tex., USAF Boeing B-50, Lucky Lady II, with Capt. James Gallagher as pilot, completed the first nonstop, round-the-world flight in history, having covered 23,452 miles in 94 hours 1 minute, and having been refueled in the air over the Azores, Arabia, the Philippines, and Hawaii.
March 4: Navy flying boat, Caroline Mars, set new world passenger-load record by carrying 269 persons from San Diego to San Francisco.
March 12: Development of a multichannel telemetering system announced by the Navy.
March 16: First experimental track-type landing gear delivered to USAF, received by 314th Troop Carrier Wing from Fairchild Aviation Corp. for installation on C-82 aircraft.
March 25: New world helicopter speed record of 133.9 mph at Niagara Falls, N.Y., claimed by XH-12 of Bell Aircraft Co.
March 26: USAF B-36 with six reciprocating and four jet engines made first test flight at Forth Worth, Tex.
March 30: The President signed a bill providing for construction of a "permanent" radar defense network for the United States.
During March: Concept of launching of small high-performance rockets suspended from a balloon above most of the atmosphere (later called "Rockoons"), developed by Cmdr. Lee Lewis, Cmdr. G. Halvorson, S. F. Singer, and J. A. Van Allen during Aerobee firing cruise of U.S.S. Norton Sound.
April 8: First successful rocket-propelled RM-10 research missile for drag and heat transfer studies at transonic and supersonic speeds, making use of skin calorimeter techniques, at Wallops Island, Va.
April 21: First European flight of aircraft powered solely with ramjet engine made in France, an air-launched Leduc which flew for 12 minutes. Rene Leduc had worked with ramjet design since 1935.
May 3: Naval Research Laboratory's Martin Viking rocket No. 1 fired at White Sands Proving Ground, N. Mex., reached an altitude of 511/2 miles and a speed of 2,250 mph its payload contained upper air pressure and temperature experiments.
---: President Truman approved amendments to the basic legislation of 1915 covering "Rules and Regulations for the Conduct of the Work of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics," a basic statement of organizational responsibilities.
May 11: President Truman signed a bill providing a 5,000-mile guided-missile test range, which was subsequently established at Cape Canaveral, Fla.
May 13: Prototype of British Canberra medium jet bomber first flown, at Warton, England.
May 24-26: Second International Conference on Aeronautics, combining the Royal Aeronautical Society and the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, held in New York.
During May: Single-stage Russian rocket attained an altitude of 68 miles with an instrument payload of 264 to 286 pounds, according to Tass, March 27, 1958.
---: Pratt & Whitney submitted specifications for XJ57-P-1 turbojet engine, basic design for which had begun in 1947 and for which production began in February 1953. The J57 ultimately powered the B-52, YB-60, F-100, F-101 YF-105A, KC-135, Boeing 707, F4D, and A3D, as well as the SNARK (SM-62) missile.
---: NACA Ames Aeronautical Laboratory completed a 10- by 14-inch supersonic wind tunnel with top Mach number of 5, later increased to 6.3.
June 9: First use of small pulse rockets in flight as disturbing impulse for evaluation of dynamic stability in a model of the Rascal missile, at NACA's Wallops Island.
June 14: Second V-2 flight carrying a live AF Aero Medical Laboratory monkey, Albert II, attained an altitude of 83 miles the monkey survived but died on impact.
June 27: Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL) at White Oak, Md., dedicated new aeroballistic facilities, which included supersonic and hypersonic wind tunnels (up to Mach 10) and the first pressurized ballistic range.
During June: NACA's first hovering flights of a simplified propeller vertical takeoff landing (VTOL) airplane model conducted at Langley Laboratory.
August 8: First operational emergency use of T-1 partial pressure suit by Maj. F. K. Everest (USAF) in X-1 aircraft at 69,000 feet suit's automatic operation saved pilot and aircraft.
August 9: First use in United States of a pilot ejection seat, by Lt. J. L. Fruin (USN), from F2H-1 Banshee while making over 500 knots near Waterboro, S.C.
During August: Wernher von Braun named an Honorary Fellow of the British Interplanetary Society.
October 1: Long-Range Proving Ground at Cape Canaveral was activated.
October 27: The Unitary Wind Tunnel Act (63 Stat. 936) authorized the construction of $136 million of new NACA facilities, $10 million for wind tunnels at universities, $6 million for a wind tunnel at the David W. Taylor Model Basin, and $100 million for the establishment of the Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center, at Tullahoma, Tenn., in recognition of the fact that industry could not subsidize expensive wind tunnels for research in transonic and supersonic flight.
November 3: Charles B. Moore (General Mills) made first manned flight in a polyethelene balloon over Minneapolis, Minn.
November 10: Piasecki HRP-2 passenger transport helicopter made first test flight.
November 21: USAF Sikorsky H-19 12-place helicopter made first test flight.
November 22: D-558-II Skyrocket exceeded the speed of sound at Edwards AFB, Calif. It was powered by both a Westinghouse J-34 turbojet engine and a Reaction Motors, Inc. rocket motor.
December 1: Supersonic wind tunnels, capable of 3,000-mph speeds, was dedicated at MIT.
December 2: First firing of USAF Aerobee research rocket (RTV-A-1a) at Holoman AFB, the development of which was initiated earlier in the year.
December 12: Last monkey, Albert IV, launched in V-2 series of tests at WSPG, a successful flight indicating no ill effects on monkey until impact of V-2.
December 22: North American YF-86D completed first flight test at Edwards AFB.
December 25: Air Force revealed development of stupalith, a ceramic which contracts when heated and expands when cooled, and which can stand heat of 2,000°, used on jet and rocket engines.
December 28: USAF reported that 2-year investigation had found that there was no such thing as a "flying saucer" and that Project Saucer at Wright-Patterson AFB had been discontinued.
During December: First continuous transonic flow established in NACA's Langley 8-foot high-speed wind tunnel with use of slotted-throat technique. (See January 8, 1947.) This was a major milestone in wind-tunnel technique.
During 1949: USAF Advisory Committee headed by Louis N. Ridenour recommended that Air Force research and development be consolidated into a single command.
---: First "probe and drogue" method of contact aerial refueling performed in England (developed by Flight Refueling, Ltd.). Early in year the USAF had issued requirement for development of a refueling method other than loop hose for use with single-seat jet fighter aircraft. After the nonstop round-the-world flight of the B-29 Luck Lady using the Boeing loop-hose method in March, Boeing developed the "boom technique."
---: Complete fixed-component combined loads testing machine was completed and operated at NACA Langley Laboratory, remaining in use through 1960. It was first machine capable of applying forces along each of three axes and moments about those axes (positive and negative), in any combination of forces and moments, each applied independently.
WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 15 April 2020
When the nations of the world met to form the United Nations in 1945, one of the first things they discussed was establishing an organization to protect and promote the health of the world&rsquos people.
They expressed that desire in the constitution of WHO, which says that the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being, without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition.
That creed remains our vision today.
The United States of America has been a longstanding and generous friend to WHO, and we hope it will continue to be so.
We regret the decision of the President of the United States to order a halt in funding to the World Health Organization.
With support from the people and government of the United States, WHO works to improve the health of many of the world&rsquos poorest and most vulnerable people.
WHO is not only fighting COVID-19. We&rsquore also working to address polio, measles, malaria, Ebola, HIV, tuberculosis, malnutrition, cancer, diabetes, mental health and many other diseases and conditions.
We also work with countries to strengthen health systems and improve access to life-saving health services.
WHO is reviewing the impact on our work of any withdrawal of U.S. funding and will work with our partners to fill any financial gaps we face and to ensure our work continues uninterrupted.
Our commitment to public health, science and to serving all the people of the world without fear or favour remains absolute.
Our mission and mandate are to work with all nations equally, without regard to the size of their populations or economies.
COVID-19 does not discriminate between rich nations and poor, large nations and small. It does not discriminate between nationalities, ethnicities or ideologies.
Neither do we. This is a time for all of us to be united in our common struggle against a common threat &ndash a dangerous enemy.
When we are divided, the virus exploits the cracks between us.
We are committed to serving the world&rsquos people, and to accountability for the resources with which we are entrusted.
In due course, WHO&rsquos performance in tackling this pandemic will be reviewed by WHO&rsquos Member States and the independent bodies that are in place to ensure transparency and accountability. This is part of the usual process put in place by our Member States.
No doubt, areas for improvement will be identified and there will be lessons for all of us to learn.
But for now, our focus &ndash my focus &ndash is on stopping this virus and saving lives.
WHO is grateful to the many nations, organizations and individuals who have expressed their support and commitment to WHO in recent days, including their financial commitment.
We welcome this demonstration of global solidarity, because solidarity is the rule of the game to defeat COVID-19.
WHO is getting on with the job.
We are continuing to study this virus every moment of every day, we are learning from many countries about what works, and we are sharing that information with the world.
There are more than 1.5 million enrolments in WHO&rsquos online courses through OpenWHO.org, and we will continue to expand this platform to train many more millions so we can fight COVID effectively.
Today we launched a new course for health workers on how to put on and remove personal protective equipment.
Every day we bring together thousands of clinicians, epidemiologists, educators, researchers, lab technicians, infection prevention specialists and others to exchange knowledge on COVID-19.
Our technical guidance brings together the most up-to-date evidence for health ministers, health workers and individuals.
Yesterday I had the honour of speaking to heads of state and government from the 13 ASEAN-plus-three nations.
It was inspiring to hear their experiences, and their commitment to working together to secure a shared future.
As a result of their experience with SARS and avian influenza, these countries have put in place measures and systems that are now helping them to detect and respond to COVID-19.
We&rsquore also continuing to work with partners all over the world to accelerate research and development.
More than 90 countries have joined or have expressed interest in joining the Solidarity Trial, and more than 900 patients have now been enrolled, to evaluate the safety and efficacy of four drugs and drug combinations.
Three vaccines have already started clinical trials, more than 70 others are in development, and we&rsquore working with partners to accelerate the development, production and distribution of vaccines.
In addition to the Solidarity Trial, I am glad to say that WHO has convened groups of clinicians to look at the impact of corticosteroids and other anti-inflammatory drugs on treatment outcomes.
Specifically, we are looking at oxygen use and ventilation strategies in patients. Any intervention that reduces the need for ventilation and improves outcomes for critically ill patients is important &ndash especially in low-resource settings, to save lives.
Last week I announced the United Nations Supply Chain Task Force, to scale up the distribution of essential medical equipment.
Yesterday the first United Nations Solidarity Flight took off, transporting personal protective equipment, ventilators and lab supplies to many countries across Africa.
The Solidarity Flight is part of a massive effort to ship lifesaving medical supplies to 95 countries across the globe, in conjunction with the World Food Programme and other agencies including Unicef, the Global Fund, Gavi, and the United Nations Department of Operational Support, Unitaid and others.
Whether it is by land, sea or air, WHO staff are working around the clock to deliver for health workers and communities everywhere.
I would like to thank the African Union, the governments of the United Arab Emirates and Ethiopia, the Jack Ma Foundation and all our partners for their solidarity with African countries at this critical moment in history. I would like to thank President Ramaphosa and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, Moussa Faki, for their leadership.
The Solidarity Response Fund has now generated almost US$150 million from 240,000 individuals and organizations.
This Saturday, some of the biggest names in music are coming together for the One World: Together at Home concert, to generate further funds for the Solidarity Response Fund.
But not just to raise funds, to bring the world together, because we&rsquore one world, one humanity fighting a common enemy. I thank Lady Gaga, Global Citizen and all that are collaborating to put this concert together.
We will continue to work with every country and every partner, to serve the people of the world, with a relentless commitment to science, solutions and solidarity.
Since the beginning, WHO has been fighting the pandemic with every ounce of our soul and spirit. We will continue to do that until the end. That&rsquos our commitment to the whole world.